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    Archived pages: 169 . Archive date: 2013-12.

  • Title: index
    Descriptive info: .. New videos about our archive.. tel.. : 416-966-1819.. fax: 416-966-1820.. email:.. office@ucrdc.. org.. Contact Us:.. Mr.. Yakiv Krekhovetsky.. has donated the painting –.. Zheky v Gulagu.. by.. Opanas Zalyvakha.. – to the UCRDC.. The artist (1925-2007) was born in Kharkiv oblast and was a member of the Shestydysyatnyky dissident movement.. He was arrested in 1965 and served 5 years in a Mordovian labour camp.. The UCRDC is very grateful to.. Krekhovetsky for this gift, which has both artistic and documentary value.. UCRDC NEWS.. Ukrainian - Jewish Relations.. Approached by Leonid Finberg of the Center for Studies of the History and Culture of East European Jews, National University of “Kyiv-Mohyla Academy”, the UCRDC has agreed to collaborate on a project on Ukrainian-Jewish relations.. Titled “I am my brother’s keeper”, the project involves both a research element and a public awareness campaign.. ‣.. more details.. The UCRDC produces documentary films, prepares educational materials, and sponsors lectures, conferences and exhibits on various topics related to Ukrainian issues.. It also functions as a resource centre with catalogued archives, oral histories (audio and video), photographs, memoirs and personal archives.. Between Hitler and Stalin: Ukraine in World War II, the Untold Story.. The one-hour documentary recounts events in Ukraine on the brink and during the course of World WarII.. Annotated scripts for this film.. Archival Holdings.. Access to the archival holdings of UCRDC is provided for legitimate researchers, academics and students.. Materials available include video and audio interviews (both on tape and digital), videos, films, photographs, documents, and books.. Harvest of Despair.. The one-hour documentary deals with the 1932-33 Famine-Genocide in Ukraine.. The Barbed Wire Solution.. Travelling exhibit about the internment of Ukrainians in Canada, 1914-20, includes full text of the exhibit panels.. Exhibit included the showing of Yuri Luhovy’s film about internment,.. Freedom Had a Price.. Oral History – Canadian Armed Forces.. “In its archives, the UCRDC has a collection of oral history testimonies of Ukrainian Canadians who served in the Canadian Armed Forces during WWII.. The  ...   Michael has asked Mr.. Prokaziuk's Toronto friends, if they wish, to donate to the UCRDC in his memory.. Wasyl Janischewskyj Scholarship.. The Ukrainian Canadian Research and Documentation Centre (UCRDC) invites application for a research scholarship in memory of Prof.. Wasyl Janischewskyj.. , a founding member of the UCRDC and its long-time chair.. The award is intended to support the publication of a major scholarly article or monograph in either Ukrainian or English on a topic related to Ukrainian studies.. Priority will be given to projects dealing with.. Transcarpathia.. (particularly the establish-ment of the Carpatho-Ukrainian state) or the Ukrainian community and institutions in interwar Prague.. The scholarship is valued at $8,000 CDN.. Candidates should apply to the UCRDC by providing a description and significance of their project (two pages maximum – 1,000 words), two letters of support, and the expected date of their project's completion (which must be by November 30, 2015).. Applications must be received by January 31, 2013.. The decision of the UCRDC will be announced by April 30, 2014.. The stipend will be granted in two payments: $3,000 CDN in May, 2014 and $5,000 CDN upon completion.. Стипендія ім.. Василя Янішевського.. Українсько-Канадський Дослідчо-Документаційний Центр (УКДДЦ) оголошує конкурс на стипендію ім.. проф.. , співзасовника і довголітнього голови УКДДЦ.. Стипендія призначенa на піддержання видання обширної наукової статті або монографії, українською або англійською мовою з ділянки україно-знавства.. Першенство матимуть проєкти пов’язані з Закарпаттям, зокрема зі встановленням держави Карпатська Україна, або з українською громадою та установами в Празі в міжвоєнному часі.. Вартість стипендії становить 8,000 кан.. дол.. Кандидати повинні внести подання на стипендію до УКДДЦ, подаючи опис проєкту (максимум дві сторінки – 1,000 слів), своє резюме, два листи піддержки, передбачений вислід та приблизну дату завершення проєкту.. Подання мають наспіти до УКДДЦ до 31 січня 2014 р, а рішення УКДДЦ буде об’явлене до 30 квітня 2014 р.. Стипендія буде виплачена в двох частинах: 3,000 кан.. в травні 2014 р.. і 5,000 кан.. в час завершення проєкту, що мусить бути до кінця листопада 2015 р.. |.. Site Map..

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  • Title: Painting Donation
    Descriptive info: Zheky v Gulagu.. by Opanas Zalyvakha.. Yakiv Krekhovetsky has donated the painting –.. by Opanas Zalyvakha – to the UCRDC.. The artist (1925-2007) was born in Kharkiv oblast and was a member of the.. Shestydysyatnyky.. dissident movement.. The UCRDC is very grateful to Mr..

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  • Title: Documentation of Ukrainians who saved Jews
    Descriptive info: Press Release.. 3 May 2010.. A Documentation of Ukrainians.. who rescued Jews during the Holocaust.. The UCRDC will focus on identifying and documenting cases that have a Canadian connection, and will undertake research in Canada to review what is already known, and covered by the media; locate and organize materials from the UCRDC archives and oral history collection; and conduct interviews in Canada regarding Ukrainians who hid or saved Jews during World War II.. The project has the support of the Ukrainian Jewish Encounter Initiative (UJEI), a privately organized, multinational initiative whose goal is to deepen scholarly and broader public understanding of the breadth, complexity, and diversity of Ukrainian-Jewish  ...   initiative.. Once a number of significant cases have been documented, UJEI, UCRDC, and the Center for Studies of the History and Culture of East European Jews in Kyiv will collaboratively organize events to raise awareness about these exceptional people and those saved by them.. The UCRDC would welcome any information that might be helpful in accomplishing this task – in particular, suggestions regarding people who should be interviewed in connection with their own experience or that of a family member.. Orest Zakydalsky.. , Researcher.. Ukrainian Canadian Research and Documentation Centre.. 620 Spadina Ave.. Toronto, ON.. M5S 2H4.. Email –.. Tel –.. 416-966-1819.. (office).. Interviews.. Newspaper.. Articles.. Other Publications.. Links.. Bibliography..

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  • Title: Film-Hitler annotated
    Descriptive info: “The whole titanic struggle.. was first of all a Ukrainian war.. No single European country suffered deeper wounds to its cities, its industry, its farmland and its humanity.. ” (Edgar Snow, US War correspondent, 1945.. “Ukraine’s independence is a very important geopolitical fact of life.. It means that Russia can no longer be an imperial state.. That transforms the nature of international politics in Europe and even in Eurasia.. ” (Zbigniew Brzezinski, former National Security advisor to the President of the United States).. ___________________________.. In 1991, there was a sudden crash - the fall of the Soviet Union.. Its final collapse came soon after Ukraine declared its independence on August 24th, 1991.. Without Ukraine, the Soviet empire ceased to exist by the end of the year.. After 70 years of brutal Soviet rule, Ukraine won her independence without, it was said, shedding a single drop of blood.. But, in fact, the blood of millions was shed through centuries for the freedom of Ukraine.. For hundreds of years, the history of Ukraine had been written by her conquerors - the pages changed by propaganda, chapters missing, or lost.. Now, archives are open - secret documents uncovered, film footage found, and eyewitnesses in Ukraine are free to tell their story.. This is the unknown story of those who struggled for independence.. __________________________________.. “Almost all textbooks say the war ended in May, 1945 with the defeat of Nazi Germany.. But for people living in Eastern Europe at the time - Poles, Ukrainians and so on - 3it seemed rather strange to hear that the war had finished, because not only was the political situation far from resolved, there was still fierce fighting in parts of Eastern Europe.. And it is possible to say, I think, that the real liberation of Eastern Europe didn’t happen until the end of the 1980’s or even the beginning of the 1990’s.. ” (Norman Davies).. In 1945 American war correspondent, Edgar Snow visited Ukraine and wrote:.. “It was not until I went on a sobering journey into this twilight of war that I fully realized the price which 40,000,000 Ukrainians paid for Soviet and Allied Victory.. The whole titanic struggle.. No fewer than 10,000,000 people had been lost to.. Ukraine since 1941.. ” A relatively small part of [Russia} was actually invaded, but.. Ukraine.. was devastated.. ”.. Poland, Belorussia, and, above all, Ukraine were the battlegrounds of the Eastern Front - trampled and terrorized by the armies of two brutal invaders, Nazi Germany and Soviet Russia.. In Eastern Europe, WWII was essentially a war for control of Ukraine’s rich land and resources.. For the people it would be a war of annihilation.. In turn, their homeland would be laid waste by both Soviets and Nazis.. Ukrainians would be forced to submit to occupation rule or perish.. But the nation found the courage to fight back.. Ukraine became the battlefield, as it had been when it defended its fledgling independent State a generation earlier.. ___________________________________.. 1.. THE PRELUDE.. The face of Europe changed dramatically by the end of World War One: the Austro-Hungarian and Tsarist Russian empires disintegrated.. A democratic.. Ukrainian National Republic.. emerged and declared its independence on.. January 22, 1918.. But after four years of fighting, Ukraine was overrun by the Russian Red Army.. The 1919 Treaty of Versailles recognized the principle of national self-determination.. However, Ukraine was carved up among four countries: Poland, Czechoslovakia, Romania and communist Russia.. Although Ukraine lost its freedom and its government under.. Symon Petlura.. went into exile, the struggle of 1917 to 1921 established the ideal of a sovereign Ukrainian state in the minds of a new generation.. After the death of Lenin in 1924, Joseph Stalin rose to power in the USSR.. He destroyed all opposition beginning with the Ukrainian intelligentsia and the Church.. By 1930, almost 3,000 priests and 32 bishops of the.. Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox church.. were exiled or executed.. No one knew the fate of its.. Primate, Metropolitan Vasyl Lypkivskii.. , until a recently found NKVD document revealed the terse sentence: “Executed November 27, 1937, at midnight.. “As they decapitated the country as a whole by removing the intelligentsia, they also decapitated the peasant class by removing the natural leaders and the best workers.. ”.. (.. Robert Conquest.. ).. In late 1932, Stalin’s regime seized all the grain harvest from Ukrainian villages.. By the spring of 1933, seven million Ukrainians had starved to death in the.. man-made Famine-Genocide.. This, however, was only the first act in Ukraine’s 20th century holocaust.. Meanwhile, in the part of Ukraine under Polish rule, five million Ukrainians became the target of.. Polonization.. “Ukrainians were being discriminated against.. And that created an atmosphere in which, we the youth - as youth tends to be - eager for action and full of initiative - began to search for alternatives not knowing precisely what to do.. But when the Organization was created, we all rushed to join.. ” (.. Karpo Mykytczuk.. , volunteer freedom fighter.. The Organization was the OUN, the.. Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists.. Formed by.. Colonel Yevhen Konovalets.. in 1929 to continue the struggle for an independent Ukraine, the OUN stated its mission in a memorandum to the British government in 1935:.. “We, the Ukrainian Nationalist Organization, are fighting for complete independence of Ukraine.. We shall most vigorously defy all.. attempts to.. solve the affairs of Eastern Europe without, or against, the will of the Ukrainian people.. The OUN became the enemy of all occupation powers: first of Poland, then Russia, and finally, Germany.. In 1938 OUN leader Konovalets was assassinated in Holland by Soviet agent.. Pavel Sudoplatov.. Leadership of the OUN was assumed by.. Andriy Melnyk.. , but soon a rift developed.. The moderate members remained loyal to Andriy Melnyk, while the radical supported.. Stepan Bandera.. However, all the Ukrainian leaders, including the President of the.. Ukrainian Government in Exile.. ,.. Andriy Livitsky.. , who succeeded Petlura, expected that the impending conflict between Germany and the USSR would provide an opportunity for Ukraine’s independence.. But Germany would soon show it was not interested in an independent Ukraine.. The dress rehearsal for the Nazi-Soviet cooperation was.. Carpatho Ukraine.. In late 1938, Czechoslovakia had agreed at last to honor its commitments under the 1919 Treaty of Versailles and granted autonomy to its eastermost province inhabited by Ukrainians.. After a democratic election the Carpatho-Ukrainian Parliament declared independence on March 15, 1939.. Monsignor Augustyn Voloshyn.. was elected President.. On the same day Hitler and his partners of the moment, Hungary and Poland, invaded various parts of Czechoslovakia.. Carpatho-Ukraine offered the first armed resistance in Europe to German designs, but its fledgling armed force was no match for the Hungarian Army, which in a few days advanced to the Polish border.. Documents show that Hitler allowed the invasion of Carpatho-Ukraine not only to gain Hungary as an ally, but to show Stalin that Germany would not support Ukrainian independence.. The fall of Carpatho-Ukraine in March helped pave the way for the.. Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Treaty.. signed by Ribbentrop and Molotov on August 23, 1939.. One week later, on September 1st, Germany invaded Poland, and World War II began.. “The Second World War passed through several phases, three very clear phases: In the first phase, from September ‘39 to ‘41, Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union were partners.. They weren’t formal allies but they were very clear partners.. I would say, 'partners in crime.. ' Not only did they partition Poland - one of the allied powers - between them, they each attacked their neighbours.. Germany, I think in those two years attacked eight European countries; the Soviet Union attacked and invaded five.. Norman Davies.. ____________________________________________.. 2.. SOVIET OCCUPATION.. On September 17, 1939, the Red Army entered Eastern Poland and the German Army withdrew to a partition line, all as part of the Nazi-Soviet pact.. “The situation in Poland at the beginning of the war in 1939 was very complicated.. The Nazis occupied the western part of Poland, the Soviets invaded and occupied the eastern parts of the Polish republic, which included, of course, western Ukraine.. The first few days of what the Soviets called the.. “.. liberation”of Western Ukraine.. passed in celebration.. Thousands were made to assemble in the Lviv Opera Theater where so-called representatives voted unanimously to join the Soviet Union.. “Let the peoples of Western Ukraine join the great family of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics!” (Maryna Perestiuk, village teacher and delegate at the Lviv Opera Theater).. “But it didn’t take long for us to realize that this was becoming an occupation which was much worse than the one before.. Oleksander Hryn’ko.. , victim of Soviet occupation).. During less than.. two years of Western Ukraine’s Soviet occupation.. , more than ten thousand were imprisoned and executed, and over half a million were deported to concentration camps in Siberia.. “These countries were caught in the grip of an impossible dilemma.. There was murder, genocide, oppression on both sides and there was no way to escape.. If you fled eastwards, you’re running the gauntlet of Soviet oppression; if you fled westward, you’re running the risk of Nazi oppression.. Ukrainians had learned to survive invasions.. In an attempt to protect them in the German occupied portion of Poland, Ukrainians formed the.. Ukrainian Central Committee.. with Professor.. Volodymyr Kubijovych.. as its head.. But the Germans allowed the Committee to perform only humanitarian work.. It had no political or governing authority.. In spite of these limitations, Ukrainians followed their own agenda.. The OUN and the Government-in-Exile started making preparations for an armed struggle to gain independence.. On April 15, 1940, the Government-in-Exile issued a declaration in Paris supporting the side of “France and England in this war” and called on Ukrainians everywhere to join in the struggle against “both imperialism - Russian and German, Soviet and Nazi.. But soon the Soviet Union - partner of Nazi Germany - would switch sides and become a partner of the Western Allies, and the hope of Allied support for Ukrainian independence would be dashed.. _________________________________-.. 3.. NAZI-SOVIET CONFLICT.. “In the second phase of the war, the configuration changes.. Stalin and Hitler, who had been partners for the first part of the war, become enemies.. Hitler had his own plans for Ukraine,.. the breadbasket of Europe.. Germany wanted space to expand, and Ukraine, with its rich soil and mineral resources would become Germany’s new Garden of Eden, to be completely repopulated by the German master race.. “I need Ukraine,” said Hitler, “so no one can starve us out again, as they did in the last war.. At 3 am on June 22, 1941, Hitler began.. Operation Barbarossa.. Three and a half million German soldiers, aided by Romanian, Italian, and Hungarian units stormed the borders of Ukraine, Belorussia and Lithuania on the western flank of the USSR.. On the very first day, they bombed Lviv, Odessa and Kyiv, the capital of Ukraine.. Ten days into the invasion, Stalin ordered the.. “scorched earth” policy.. that would devastate Ukraine by retreating Soviet forces:.. “All valuable property - food, grain and fuel that cannot be withdrawn, must be unconditionally destroyed.. In areas occupied by the enemy, guerilla units must.. set fire to forests, storehouses and transports.. Abandoning Ukraine to the Germans, the Soviets.. shipped eastward.. whatever they could - grain and livestock, skilled workers and scientists, machinery and factories.. What they could not take - they destroyed, blasting railroad bridges, mines and Europe’s largest hydroelectric dam, Dniprohes.. When the.. Germans occupied Kyiv.. in September 1941 they found it one vast booby trap.. The Soviet military had planted more that 10,000 mines and began detonating remote-controlled explosives placed in hotels, the central post office, broadcasting center - even historic landmarks, including an 11th century church.. But the crowning brutality of the Soviet regime was revealed when the Germans opened up the prisons throughout Ukraine.. “The retreating Soviets, the KGB as we now call it, the NKVD at the time, killed a lot of prisoners whenever they left, and these prisoners included some Zionists, a great many Ukrainian nationalists, and a lot of people who were picked up just for being prominent and not cooperating with the Soviets.. The main prison was ankle deep in blood, the Germans reported.. John Armstrong.. “Anyone who witnessed the sight will never forget it.. Those people were truly tortured to death: tongues cut out, noses and ears cut off, women’s bodies with breasts cut off, hands and feet twisted and broken - obviously during interrogations - hands bound with barbed wire.. All this was laid out, and people from nearby villages came to see these mutilated bodies and try to recognize their relatives among them.. Serhii Pushchyk.. , witness from Volyn).. According to NKVD records a total of 9,706 Ukrainian political prisoners were shot by the Soviet Secret Police in prisons in the first month of the war.. Mykola Kudela.. was a political prisoner of the Soviets in Lutsk Prison, a 17th century convent that served as a prison under three regimes.. Kudela’s escape from the Soviet execution of 2000 people at the prison was nothing short of a miracle.. “When war broke out on June 22, the next day, Monday  ...   Roman Shukhevych.. as its commander-in-chief and under the political direction of the.. Ukrainian Supreme.. Liberation Council.. At the peak of its strength in 1944-45, UPA fielded over 40 thousand combat soldiers organized in four military districts: UPA North, UPA South, UPA West and UPA East.. Their area of operation encompassed one quarter of Ukraine and they fought against both the Nazis and the Soviets.. Over the ten year period of active resistance hundreds of thousands of men and women joined the UPA and its well-organized network of civilian self-defense and support units.. Every village had a contact person who quartered the soldiers and arranged for supplies.. One of the largest military confrontations of the insurgents with the Germans took place in the district of UPA North and lasted from July to September 1943.. The Germans committed some 25,000 troops.. After 75 battles and over 3,000 casualties, the Germans failed to reach their objectives.. “Unlike other resistance movements during the German Occupation, the Ukrainian Insurgent Army functioned without any help from abroad.. It became a Ukrainian People’s Army and had the support of all the people - men, women and youth.. Lev Futala.. , officer of the UPA).. “I went with a nurse to the insurgents, the Khanenko group, named after their commander.. I took care of the wounded.. Then the commander looks at me and says, ‘You’re so small.. You could help us with reconnaissance.. ” Of course, I was delighted.. Volodymyra Senyk.. , teenage volunteer in the UPA).. On December 16, 1942, Hitler ordered that “the most brutal means” be used against all guerillas in Ukraine, “even against women and children.. “Anyone who aids a partisan - death.. Anyone who helps a Jew escape - death.. Anyone who listens to a Soviet radio broadcast or reads an anti-German leaflet - death.. ” Because of such mass executions in Ukraine, just as many civilians as soldiers died during the course of the war.. Still, the people persevered.. Then, in 1943, the German 6th Army surrendered at.. Stalingrad.. , and Hitler’s forces began the long retreat.. In September,.. SS Chief Heinrich Himmler.. issued a secret order: “When areas of Ukraine are evacuated, the enemy must find a land completely burned out and destroyed.. Scorched earth Ukraine, again.. Caught between Hitler and Stalin, Ukraine was left in rubble - the most devastated European country of the war.. During the German occupation, 459 Ukrainian villages were burned to the ground.. When the village of Kortelisy was set afire by German soldiers on September 23, 1942, they murdered everyone - 2,892 men, women, and children.. “It was only after the tide turned in 1943 that you enter the third phase of the war where the Soviet Union becomes militarily and politically dominant in Eastern Europe.. ________________________________.. 6.. THE DILEMMA.. From 1941 military units of foreign volunteers in the German armed forces attached to the.. Waffen SS.. ”.. were formed in Norway, Denmark, France, Belgium and Holland.. However, when Germany ran short of cannon fodder, it eased its racial criteria and started to recruit the.. Untermenschen.. peoples of Eastern Europe.. The largest unit was the 300,000 strong.. Russian Liberation Army.. led by captured Soviet General.. Andrey Vlasov.. Expecting that the Western Allies would eventually turn against Stalin, some Ukrainians took advantage of this situation to form a military unit in the hope that it would fight for an independent Ukraine.. In Western Ukraine a division was recruited by the Germans in 1943.. It was understood that it would fight only against Soviet forces, not against the Western Allies.. No one wanted to fight “for Hitler,” only against Stalin.. The 14th Grenadier Division Galicia.. was formed and attached to the Waffen SS.. 16,000 volunteers received military training in 1943 and ‘44.. The personnel of the Division was Ukrainian; however, all higher ranking officers were German.. But it wasn’t until the summer of 1944 that the Division became fully combat ready.. Myroslaw Maleckyj.. , officer of the Galicia Division).. “There was, indeed, a clear distinction between the Waffen SS, which was a military wing of the SS, and various other SS formations, which had different sorts of duties.. The Galician Division fought its major battle near the town of Brody in Western Ukraine.. On July 18, 1944, it was encircled by an overwhelming Soviet Army.. 8.. 000 were lost to the Division - killed, captured or escaped to join the Ukrainian Insurgent Army.. Following the.. Battle of Brody.. , the Division was reorganized and saw action against communist forces in Slovakia, Slovenia and Austria.. It surrendered in 1945 to the British Army and was interned in.. Rimini, Italy.. After being cleared by the Allied authorities, the soldiers were released in 1947.. Some remained in Great Britain, while others settled in the U.. S.. , Canada and elsewhere.. Among the survivors of the Battle of Brody was Volodymyr Demchuk, who carried a souvenir of the ill-fated encounter in his body for 46 years.. Demchuk often wondered if the bullet had been fired by a fellow Ukrainian in the opposing army.. “We all fought against two of the most cruel butchers in the world.. ” (Volodymyr Demchuk).. In this horrible war.. foreign powers forced brother to fight brother.. During World War II.. seven million Ukrainians served in the Red Army.. - twice the number of the entire United States Army in Europe and proportionately more than any other nationality of the Soviet Union.. The First Ukrainian Front Army liberated Auschwitz and helped capture Berlin.. Not everyone fought for Stalin.. Some served because they were forced to; others, to drive away the Nazi invader and defend their homeland.. “All those who fought, whether against the Germans or Soviets, were fighting against imperialism.. And we knew that only on the ruins of imperialism could we build our state.. ” (Volodymyr Demchuk, veteran of the Galicia Division).. But it would take over 40 more years before Ukraine would emerge as an independent state.. _______________________________________.. 7.. THE WAR AFTER THE WAR.. On May 8, 1945 the war in Europe was officially over.. While the world celebrated the end of the war in Europe.. in Eastern Europe, life returned to Soviet “Normal” - more executions, more exiles to Siberian concentration camps.. “In the camp, we had our own organization.. We struggled to keep our soul from dying.. Conditions there could lead people to become animals.. They tried to kill in us all that is human, so we could think only of food and nothing else.. Luckily, they did not succeed.. ” (Volodymyra Senyk, survivor of the.. Gulag.. Neither did they succeed in killing their faith.. Ukrainian Orthodox believers were forced to join the.. Russian Orthodox Church.. controlled by the KGB and the Soviet State.. Ukrainian Catholics were forced to liquidate their Church.. But in reality the flame of faith was never extinguished, and the Church went underground.. “I think the post-war history of Ukraine starts with the phase of continuing resistance.. Many people in the West don’t realize that Ukrainians, like many of their neighbours, like the Poles, were fighting both against Hitler and against Stalin.. And after the Soviet victory in 1945, there was a remnant of the wartime resistance continuing, attempting to resist the Soviet take-over.. The Ukrainian Insurgent Army had been engaged in large-scale operations against the Soviet security forces since March 1944.. In 1945-46 the Soviets sent 585,000 men against the insurgents.. This campaign, called.. The Big Blockade.. , included 1,500 major engagements in which the Ukrainian freedom fighters faced heavy weapons, tanks, and aircraft - even bacteriological warfare.. Many years later Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev wrote in his memoirs, “Ukrainian nationalists have given us more trouble than anyone else.. After the war, we lost thousands of men in a bitter struggle between Ukrainian nationalists and the forces of Soviet power.. The insurgents knew their struggle was lost, but not their cause.. This was the spirit which drove their commander, Roman Shukhevych to the end.. His personal messenger.. Daria Husyak.. recalls:.. “In 1950 I hear him say ‘This fight which we will surely lose, still has tremendous meaning for our history.. for our future generations.. ‘Because, he said, ‘a new generation will emerge from this heroic struggle and will continue to pursue our goal.. ” (Daria Husyak).. In that year, when special units of the Soviet Secret Police surrounded his hideout, Shukhevych died in the exchange of fire.. The struggle continued a few more years.. Even in the Gulag imprisoned members of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army organized and took part in the.. uprisings of 1952-53.. As late as 1956 Insurgent fighters sabotaged Soviet troop movements during the Hungarian Revolution.. “Certainly till the early ‘50s, there was active resistance in Ukraine.. Then you move into a period of total Soviet domination.. The Soviet Union, throughout its existence, felt so threatened by the Ukrainian independence movement that it systematically eliminated its principal leaders.. In 1926, Symon Petlura, Head of the Ukrainian National Republic was assassinated in France.. In 1938, Colonel Yevhen Konovalets, founder of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists was killed by a Soviet agent in Holland.. In 1945 the President of Carpatho-Ukraine, Augustyn Voloshyn, perished in a Moscow prison.. In 1959, OUN leader Stepan Bandera was killed by a Soviet agent using a poison gas pistol in Germany.. Winston Churchill attempted to prevent the total domination of Eastern and Central Europe by the Soviet Union.. But his efforts were dashed by President Roosevelt’s support of “Uncle Joe” Stalin’s demands at the Yalta Conference in February 1945.. The two Western leaders yielded their humanitarian principles to Stalin’s demand that all citizens of the Soviet Union, including refugees, Ostarbeiters and POWs must be.. repatriated.. , even by force if they did not return voluntarily.. The U.. Armed Forces instructed: “Liberated Soviet citizens.. will be returned to the control of the USSR without regard to individual wishes.. Slave laborers, prisoners of war and anyone who had contact with the West was branded” a traitor to the fatherland” by Stalin.. The punishment could be a firing squad or 10 to 25 years in the Gulag, the Soviet concentration camps.. Fittingly, the Allies named the repatriation after an old Navy punishment: “Operation Keelhaul.. ” Victims were trapped in repatriation camps:.. “All over our barracks were portraits of marshals, of Stalin and Kaganovich and posters blaring: THE FATHERLAND IS CALLING.. THE FATHERLAND FORGIVES! What is it that they forgive? I wondered.. What Fatherland? What sin did I commit against the Fatherland? So the Fatherland let the Germans in, and they took me away, and now I’m guilty because the Fatherland let the Germans take me?” (.. Petro Sydorenko.. , Ostarbeiter).. In all, two million Ukrainians were repatriated.. But many resisted.. Some committed suicide rather than return to the USSR.. Eventually,.. Ukrainian Canadian military officers.. in England won the support of Eleanor Roosevelt who, with others, intervened, and the forced repatriations were halted.. A quarter of a million Ukrainians remained in Western Europe.. Dispersed throughout 300.. Displaced Persons camps.. in Germany and Austria, most eventually settled in the United States, Canada, Australia, Great Britain and South America.. They had few material possessions, but they took with them their culture and heritage, and the words of those who inspired them to seek freedom and justice.. The poet Taras Shevchneko had urged his countrymen to learn and absorb other cultures, but never to forget their own.. And they didn’t.. And wherever they could, they told the story of Ukraine.. ____________________________________.. EPILOGUE.. “The common slogan ’20 million Russian ward dead’ is, I believe, wrong in each of its constituent parts.. It refers for example, not to Russians, but to Soviet citizens.. Therefore, it includes large numbers of Ukrainians, of Poles, of Jews, of all the nationalities of the Soviet Union who were victims of one sort or another during the war.. Ukraine suffered the greatest losses of any European country.. During the six years of war, Ukraine lost more people than the total military losses of the United States, Canada, the British Commonwealth, France, Germany Japan and Italy all put together.. Eight million inhabitants of Ukraine killed, over half in combat.. Millions more were lost through deportation, exile and displacement.. Thus, as a result of World War II, Ukraine’s population decreased by more than 10 million, a full quarter of its people lost.. Although the armed struggle ended in the 1950’s and renewed Soviet oppression was to last another forty years, the desire for freedom was not lost.. In the 1960’s and 70’s.. dissidents.. openly defied the oppressive regime.. During the 1980’s they took up the struggle for human rights appealed for democratic freedoms and called for independence.. On August 24, 1991, Ukraine declared its independence.. That transforms the nature of international politics in Europe, and even in Eurasia.. So the blood was not shed in vain.. Beyond that, the life of a nation and its commitment to freedom is nurtured by the concept of sacrifice.. And that becomes if you will, a mythology that sustains life.. ” (Zbigniew Brzezinski).. Such is the untold story of Ukrainians in World War II who persevered, fought for freedom and, in spite of Hitler and Stalin, laid the foundation for independent Ukraine..

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  • Title: Film - Between Hitler and Stalin – Ukraine in WWII, directed by Slawko Nowytski
    Descriptive info: The film chronicles the struggle between the Nazi and Soviet regimes, from a Ukrainian perspective.. The documentary recounts the events in Ukraine on the brink of the Second World War, during the Soviet occupation of Western Ukraine (1939–1941), the German-Soviet War, the Nazi occupation of Ukraine and the second Soviet occupation of Western Ukraine (1944).. The impact of these events, which claimed 8 to 10 million Ukrainian lives, is depicted through segments on the “scorched-earth” policies of both powers; the tragedy of the Jews; and the 2.. 3 million Ukrainians taken as slave labourers (.. Ostarbeiters.. The Ukrainians’ struggle against the Nazi occupiers and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army’s fight—against both totalitarian powers—for Ukraine’s independence are is portrayed.. The film also deals with the forcible repatriation of Ukrainians to the Soviet Union, Displaced Persons (D.. P.. ) camps and emigration.. Between Hitler and Stalin.. features eyewitness accounts, documentary material, rare film footage, photos and documents obtained from myriad sources.. NORMAN DAVIES.. , author and academic, is also a well known lecturer and broadcaster.. Professor Emeritus, London University and Supernumerary Fellow, Wolfson College Oxford, he is the author of several historical works on Poland and Russia.. His more recent books include Europe: A History (1996), a ground-breaking work which became an international bestseller and The Isles: A History (1999).. He is currently working on a study of the Second World War in Europe.. He was born in England in 1939 and lives in London.. ROBERT CONQUEST.. is a senior research fellow and scholar-curator of the  ...   President of the US (1977 to 1981), member of the faculty of Columbia University (1960-1989) and is currently Counselor, Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington, DC.. He is the author of numerous books on foreign policy and international relations,and he has maintained continous interest in the post-Soviet world and is the Chairman of the American-Ukrainian Advisory Committee.. He was born in Warsaw in 1928 and lives in Washington, DC.. Experts featured in the film Between Hitler Stalin.. Between.. Hitler.. and Stalin annotated.. This is the full text of the script of the film Between Hitler and Stalin, with annotations (researched explanations of some of the terminology used).. They are marked in red and linked to the explanations.. SLAVKO NOWYTSKI.. is a producer/director whose films in 40 years of professional work in motion pictures and video have earned him dozens of international awards.. He was born in Ukraine and received his professional education at the Pasadena Playhouse College of Theatre Arts and at Columbia University.. He was the Producer/Director of the award winning documentary Harvest of Despair and has created a number of other documentaries.. He has worked on the Ukrainian-language weekly magazine-format program popular in Ukraine, Window on America.. JACK PALANCE’.. s film career began in 1952 with the film Sudden Fear.. He has appeared in many outstanding films and won an Oscar for City Slickers in 1991.. Palance has played both on the stage and in TV dramas.. Jack Palance, born Walter Palahniuk, was of Ukrainian heritage.. He died in 2006..

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  • Title: Oral history on Ukrainian famine, Ukraine in WWII, internment of Ukrainian Canadians
    Descriptive info: The UCRDC archive was initially established in 1988 to organize the large collection of materials pertaining to the 1932-33 Famine in Ukraine.. The archival collection, housed in a special climate-controlled room, is constantly growing and now contains legal and government documents, photographs, newspaper clippings, correspondence, audio and video documentation of oral histories, and a collection of unpublished memoirs.. The UCRDC collects material on such topics as:.. •.. Ukrainian Famines of 1921-23, 1932-33, 1946-47.. The internment of Ukrainians in Canada 1914-1920.. Ukraine and Ukrainians during WW II.. Ukrainian-Canadian Servicemen.. The DP (Displaced Persons) Experience.. Ukrainian Canadian Women - post WW II immigration.. Prominent leaders of the Ukrainian community.. Ukraine and Ukrainians under Soviet occupation: Joint Oral History project with Lviv State University.. Famine in Ukraine.. Interviews were conducted between 1981 and 1988 with survivors of the Ukrainian Famine 1932-33.. Topics include the Famine itself, cannibalism, communism, collectivization, religious persecution, the CHEKA, the League of Nations, the O.. G.. U.. , Torgsin Stores and the Twenty-Five Thousanders.. Places mentioned are the North Caucasus, Podillia, the Volga Region, Volyn, and cities and villages in Ukraine.. Transcripts of the sound cassette recordings were published in the Oral History Project of the Commission on the Ukraine Famine, vol.. 3, Washington, D.. C.. , U.. Government Printing Office, 1990, pp.. 1464-1659.. Material from these interviews was used in the production of Harvest of Despair.. Ukrainian, English, German, Russian.. Displaced Person Collection.. Interviews conducted since 1989 with individuals who witnessed the events of WW II, immigrated and settled in Canada after the war.. Respondents include survivors of German and Soviet concentration camps, members of various World War II military formations, and forced labourers.. Their biographies are recorded.. Reference is made to Ukrainian Canadian Committee (UCC), United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA), International Refugee Organization (IRO); Ukrainian Division  ...   past, present and future of Ukrainian political and social life, are recorded.. They discuss communism, political prisoners, World War II, the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA), RUKH (the pro-democracy movement), and the Communist Party.. Countries mentioned: Ukraine, Australia, Germany, and various cities in the United States.. Ukrainian.. Lydia Palij conducting interview with Dr.. Peter Smylski, veteran of the Canadian Armed Forces.. 20.. 04.. 1989.. Interview by Oksana Zakydalsky with journalist Ivan Kedryn-Rudnytsky, editor of the newspaper Dilo in interwar Lviv, Ukraine.. New York.. 21.. 12.. 1993.. Daria Husiak (left), former UPA member and Roman Shukhevych’s courier after being interviewed by Iryna Moroz.. 31.. 03.. A registration form is filled out by users of any UCRDC materials.. It includes: name, position, address, telephone, purpose of research, date of visit.. UCRDC holdings are not permitted to leave the premises of the UCRDC under any circumstances.. Reproduction of UCRDC holdings may be subject to copyright and other restrictions placed on it by the donor.. A fee of $25.. 00 per image for publication of any photo shall be paid to the UCRDC.. Photocopies of UCRDC material may be supplied at 25 cents per 8 x 11 page of copy.. Colour laser copies may be supplied at $5.. 00 per copy.. These regulations are subject to revision and application by the UCRDC Staff.. Iroida Wynnyckyj,.. archivist of the UCRDC.. ARCHIVAL DONATION.. UCRDC continues to accept donations of personal archival materials (passports, birth and death certificates, diplomas, unpublished memoirs).. If you have material which you think may be suitable for inclusion in UCRDC Archives - please contact the office before bringing it to the Centre.. Our archival space is limited, but we would like to help you to find the best depository for your material.. Under no circumstances should any material be left without UCRDC archivist's expressed agreement..

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  • Title: Film-Harvest of Despair
    Descriptive info: Harvest of Despair annotated.. This is the full text of the script of the film Harvest of Despair, with 29 annotations (researched explanations of some of the terminology used).. Filmmakers of Harvest of Despair.. - producer and director.. He was born in Ukraine and his family settled in Canada in 1950.. He received his professional education as an actor and director at the Pasadena Playhouse College of Theatre Arts and his Motion Picture Production education at Columbia University.. After Harvest of Despair, he created a number of other documentaries on Ukrainian subjects: The Helm of Destiny manifests a sensitive study of Ukrainian immigration to the USA, while Reflections of the Past dealt with the first immigration to Canada.. Since 1993, Mr.. Nowytski has been working as an International Television Broadcaster for Voice of America in Washington, D.. , where he lives and produces the Ukrainian-language weekly magazine-format program popular in Ukraine, Window on America.. YURIJ LUHOVY.. – was producer, editor and associate director of the film.. He was born in 1949 in Belgium and lives in Montreal, Canada where he owns the film production company La Maison de Montage Luhovy Inc.. He earned a BA in cinematography and French literature at Sir George Williams (Concordia) University and has devoted himself to professional filmmaking as producer, director and editor on many films, one of which was Freedom Had a Price – on the internment of Ukrainians in Canada during World War I - whose production was supported by the UCRDC.. He has also been editor on features and miniseries as well as documentaries.. In 2008 he was producer and director of Okradena Zemlia (Stolen Land) another film about the Famine-Holodomor.. It is called the forgotten holocaust - a time when Stalin was dumping  ...   journalists and writers such as George Bernard Shaw, all contributed to the regime's campaign of concealment.. Even the democratic governments of the depression-hit West preferred to remain silent over Soviet Russia's atrocities in order to continue import and export trade.. In 1932-33, roughly one-quarter of the entire population of Ukraine perished through brutal starvation.. Harvest of Despair, through its stark, haunting images, provides the eloquent testimony of a lost generation that has been silenced too long.. At the time of the appearance of the film Harvest of Despair about the man-made famine in Ukraine, not only was the famine unknown in the West but the USSR government continued to deny that such a famine had ever occurred.. But, in spite of the fact that the film was controversial, it was widely shown – telecast nationwide in Canada on CBC-TV, it was also the centrepiece of a special two-hour Firing Line programme on PBS in the USA.. It was seen on many European networks and its Ukrainian language version was broadcast in Ukraine on the eve of the referendum on independence in December 1991.. Subsequently, a Spanish language version of the film, whose post-production was overseen by Yurij Luhovy, meant that it could receive wide dissemination in South America.. The film Harvest of Despair won the awards and honours at the following festivals:.. Houston International Film Festival - April 1985 - Houston, Texas.. Strasburg International Film Festival - April 1985.. Festival Des Filmes Du Monde - August 1985 - Montreal, Quebec.. New York Film Festival - September 1985 - New York City.. Columbus International Film Festival - November 1985 - Columbus, Ohio.. Yorkton Short Film and Video Festival - October 1985.. International Film and T.. V.. Festival of New York - November 1985..

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  • Title: Film-Harvest of Despair annotated
    Descriptive info: Final Script, September 6, 1984, Ukrainian Famine Research Committee.. St.. Vladimir Institute, 620 Spadina Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 2H4.. (16 mm, 55 mins, color).. NARRATOR:.. The year: 1933.. The place: The Soviet Union.. Behind the façade food is being used as a weapon against people who have proven troublesome to Moscow.. Famine is engineered – deliberately – in the North Caucuses, the Volga Basin and Ukraine.. Soviet secret police.. seal off Ukraine’s borders.. No one can get out or bring food in.. A nation the size of France is strangled by hunger.. In less than two years ten million people die; seven million of them in Ukraine; three million of them children.. Malcolm Muggeridge:.. This is the most terrible thing I have seen, precisely because of the deliberation with which it was done and the total absence of even any kind of sympathy.. Johann von Herwarth:.. You revive this terrible past, and you are always shaken again, and it moves you again, and you…you can’t get rid of these terrible pictures you have seen or these terrible reports you have gotten in this period.. Motria Dutka:.. Nearest city was 40 miles, so I walked about once a week or to that city.. I could buy for my salary two loaves of bread a month.. So that’s only how we could survive.. But the peasants were dying.. Lubov Drashevska:.. This was the first time in life that I saw people dying, and…of course, it was very hard.. TITLE: HARVEST OF DESPAIR.. The Man-made Famine of 1932-33 in Ukraine.. The untold story of Ukraine’s darkest tragedy begins at a time of great optimism and joy in March 1917.. A tidal wave of revolution sweeps aside the mighty Czarist Empire.. National boundaries change rapidly with the dramatic shifting of power.. Ukrainians grasp the chance to reclaim their independence.. after two hundred years of Russian domination.. Kiev, Ukraine’s ancient capital is once again the seat of government.. Ukraine’s rich and fertile land has supplied Europe with grain for countless generations.. Even the ancient Greeks depended on her abundant stores of wheat.. History has taught Ukraine that freedom had a price.. The people prepare to defend their republic against all invaders.. December 1917.. Having consolidated Bolshevik control in Russia, Lenin prepares to reclaim the former czarist territories.. In four ensuing years of chaos, Ukrainians fight.. Lenin’s Red Army.. Denikin’s White Army.. , Germans, Poles.. Whether the armies march in as enemies or allies, the price is always measured in tons of food.. This bountiful country is slowly bled dry.. 1921.. The dust of battle finally settles: Russia has retaken the major part of the country.. Western Ukraine is carved up between Poland, Rumania and Czechoslovakia.. The Russian conquerors ship out more and more grain to feed Moscow.. A drought adds to Ukraine’s misery: millions die as the.. “Breadbasket of Europe”.. experiences its first famine.. Yet this is but a preview of the tragedy to follow.. To end continued resistance to Bolshevik rule, Lenin adopts a.. new economic policy.. Grain requisitions are cancelled: the peasant farmer is allowed to trade freely on the open market.. The impact on Ukraine is dynamic: 80% of her population are farmers.. Hoping to win further support, Lenin tolerates the.. national revival.. , which has been gathering momentum since the 1917 Revolution in Kiev.. Ukraine’s blossoming renaissance is so powerful, Lenin’s successor – Stalin- views the loss of Russian influence with increasing alarm.. Ivan Majstrenko was a Marxist instructor of journalism in Soviet Ukraine.. Ivan Majstrenko:.. (Speaking in Ukrainian, English dub.. ) A meeting of the Politburo heard a report that students in Kiev no longer know how to speak Russian.. Everyone was shocked: “How can that be?!” they asked.. Well, in Ukrainian schools during the 20s the Russian language was treated like French, German, etc.. …as a foreign language.. And that’s why student who came from Ukrainian schools didn’t know Russian.. And not knowing Russian constituted a clear threat that Kiev would become the capital of an independent Ukraine!.. NARRATOR:.. Thousands of Ukrainian language parishes spring up across the country.. For the first time since the seventeenth century, the.. Ukrainian Orthodox Church.. reestablishes its independence from the Moscow patriarchate.. In the arts, the flourishing avant-garde models itself on Western – not Russian – culture.. Literary circles abound: Writers and poets develop a uniquely Ukrainian literature.. Ukraine’s leading Communist writer,.. Mykola Khvylovyj.. elaborates on the dangerous slogan, “Away from Moscow.. ” Even the leader of the.. Ukrainian Communist Party.. Mykola Skrypnyk.. , sees the USSR as a kind of.. League of Nations.. , and argues for greater cultural and political autonomy to win Ukrainians over to Communism.. James E.. Mace:.. Mykola Skrypnyk really saw himself as an equal to Stalin, as an independent national rule.. I mean, when he went to Moscow he’d take a translator even though he spoke perfect Russian.. He tried with some success to establish a cultural protectorate over Ukrainian communities in Russia.. He even called for the direct annexation of borders areas with a majority of Ukrainians to Soviet Ukraine.. So he was actually making territorial demands against Stalin.. By 1928 Stalin was a law unto himself.. This efficient, ruthless administrator has eliminated all effective opposition within the Politburo.. The dream of a.. worldwide Communist Revolution.. has not materialized.. As Stalin strengthens Communism within the borders of the USSR, Russian nationalism increasingly is injected into his policies.. The strong cultural individuality of Ukraine is no longer tolerated.. 1929.. Stalin strikes at the nation’s heart and mind: its Church and its intelligentsia.. Over the next few years the systematic liquidation of intellectual is carried out by the Communist regime in Ukraine.. 5,000 scholars, scientists, poets and artist, prominent during Ukraine’s independence, are arrested for allegedly belonging to the.. SVU – a secret organization the Soviets claim is planning an armed insurrection.. Only 45 get a public trial.. No evidence is considered necessary.. Thousands upon thousand are imprisoned, deported and executed later, as mass arrests continue throughout the thirties.. Even the Church is accused of involvement in this alleged plot.. Alexander Bykovetz:.. Many priests were arrested.. Many were sent to Siberian camps.. Many shot.. My father was one of them.. He never came back.. I know this from personal experience.. Thirty bishops were murdered.. Thousands of priests were perished.. Hundreds of thousands of faithful were liquidated.. Metropolitan Wasyl Lypkivkyj.. and his two successors were arrested, too.. To this day we don’t know what happened to them.. Fedot Shpachenko:.. (In Ukrainian, English dub).. The Church was full of people.. Some communists rode inside on horseback and ordered me to undress.. It was March.. There was snow outside.. The snow was melting, and I walked in water up to my knees while they rode on horseback.. They interrogated me, but I didn’t answer their questions, and for this I was rewarded with pistol blows across my back.. Alexandra Kowalska:.. They began taking down the icons and smashing them on the ground.. The people wanted to go inside the church but they didn’t let them.. They ruined everything, smashed everything in the church, and the people stood outside crying because they couldn’t do anything.. When a man went up to remove the bell and that bell fell to the ground and rang out, all the people burst into tears.. Everyone was weeping and saying goodbye to the bell because that was the last time that bell rang.. By 1930 only the Russian Orthodox Church remains.. In October 1928 Stalin introduces a drastic.. Five-Year Plan.. to transform the Soviet Union from a backward, rural society into a modern, self-sufficient, industrial empire – virtually overnight.. Military defense takes priority; Socialism must be protected from all future enemies.. Western technology is urgently needed.. To pay for it Stalin must seize the only exportable resource: grain.. And so, he decrees the.. compulsory collectivization of agriculture.. Henceforth, all private lands, livestock and farming implements will belong to the state.. The farmer will work for pay – like a worker in a factory.. Robert S.. Sullivant:.. One of the intriguing elements in the Ukraine was that it brought together both the peasant question, and the nationality question in a way that was somewhat different than in other areas, because in the Ukraine Ukrainians tended to concentrate in rural areas; and, in the city areas, particularly in Eastern Ukraine, it was Russian and Jewish populations that dominated.. So that any policies that the Bolsheviks adopted toward the peasants had an obvious impact on Ukrainians very directly.. With the destruction of the intellectuals and the Church well under way, collectivization allows Stalin to break the farmers, the backbone of the nation.. Anticipating fierce resistance, he orders the liquidation of the kulaks as a class.. Kulak.. ” is a Bolshevik label for the wealthier farmers who own 24 acres of land, or hire labor.. They are considered potential leaders in any revolt.. The state confiscates not only the lands of the farmers classified as “kulaks,” but also all their possessions.. It is forbidden by law to assist these “.. enemies of the people.. ” Myroslava Utka was seven when her parents were exiled.. She never saw them again.. Myroslava Utka.. :.. In the winter of 1931 they came to evict us from our house.. Activists, a group of people, if they could be called people, came into the house and looked over everything and made us very frightened.. Then they said, “Get out.. This isn’t your house anymore.. ” But mother wouldn’t leave.. “At least let us spend the rest of the winter here,” she begged, “where can I go with these children and old people?” A militiaman or activist stood in the doorway as a guard.. Mother shouted to us, “Children, don’t leave the house!” There were tears and screams.. It was frightening.. We grabbed hold of the benches in the house, screaming and refusing to let go.. Then the men began to take us out one by one.. They would throw us outside and then another.. Thus, they threw us out of the house one by one, all six of us.. A courageous neighbor risked deportation to give her family shelter.. Some farmers burn their crops, kill their livestock and flee to the cities.. But over the next three years, one million men, women and children are rounded up, jammed into sealed boxcars, and shipped of to the remotest regions of the Soviet Union.. The survivors work as slave labor, producing raw materials for export to the West.. This is the end of the line for many of the best farmers and cultural and religious leaders of Ukraine.. Young party activists are brought in from the cities to push through collectivization.. Anyone who opposes the measures is denounced as a “kulak” and deported.. Yet resistance comes from all quarters.. Not so long ago, the Bolsheviks had given land to the poor: now they want to take it away.. Lev Kopelev.. Thank God I didn’t kill anyone; I didn’t inform on anyone.. But I wrote.. I was an agitator.. I attended meeting and also told the peasants: “Bring in the grain! Hand over the grain.. The workers have nothing to eat! There’s a world crisis! Hitler has taken over in Germany! The Japanese are advancing into Manchuria! Our country is a fortress that’s surrounded by enemies on all sides!”.. And I yelled, and begged, and swore…and threatened of course: “Anyone who doesn’t bring in grain had better watch out for the punishing sword of  ...   legs, would go into the house, bring out the corpse, and place it in the sleigh.. They’d collect two, three, four a day.. Myroslava Utka:.. In the spring when my little sister died, her body lay in the house a whole week.. We kept it until mother came back from the state farm.. People would come to our house and knock on the door every day, asking whether we had any corpses.. We’d shout, “No, we don’t!” Then the wagon would continue down the street collecting corpses.. When mother came home, we had to bury my sister.. How could we bury her? There was nothing for a coffin.. We wrapped her in a sheet, placed her on a sled and took her to the cemetery…We put her between two coffins in a big grave.. Coffins were placed on top also.. And that’s how we buried her.. Half a world away, kinsmen of the famine victims voice protests and form relief committees.. Help is offered from Canada, the United States, Switzerland, France, Belgium.. Cardinal Innitzer.. initiates relief in Austria.. Metropolitan Sheptytskyj.. in Western Ukraine.. But all shipments of food grind to a halt at the Soviet border.. The Soviet Red Cross flatly denies the existence of famine; the hands of the international organization are tied.. Metropolitan Mstyslav.. was then a deputy in the Polish parliament.. He helped to organize relief efforts by Ukrainians living under Polish rule.. Metropolitan Mstyslav:.. Our attempts to ship the grain into Ukraine were coordinated through the Soviet Embassy in Warsaw.. They told us this was no in their jurisdiction, and that they would relay the request to the central government in Moscow.. But Moscow’s communications to us were: “What are you doing? Why would we need grain? We have had a wonderful harvest! There is no famine of any kind.. This is nothing but anti-Soviet propaganda, that’s all.. ” So they gave us no hope of any kind that the grain would ever get there.. Spring 1933.. The man-made Famine reaches its height.. 25,000 are dying every day, 1,000 an hour.. 17 human beings every minute.. Fedir Weretenko:.. They tried to fool the people, telling them the famine was from natural causes.. But the people saw that the famine was not from natural causes.. No matter how hard they tried to hide the grain sealed inside mills and silos, people somehow found out that there was plenty of grain, but they wouldn’t give out any.. Most of the grain was inside state mills.. They were filled, and nobody was allowed near them.. Some of it was piled high in the yard in sacks covered with canvas and it just rotted away.. When I came to Mekirdivka the first time, all the bushes were still green.. But, when I came back, there was not a single leaf left.. They ate it all.. You could not hear a dog bark in the village.. Because they were eaten also.. We were told, “Children, it’s very dangerous to go begging for food from house to house now.. Terrible crimes are happening.. You may not have heard, but a man who was going to the well for water, or was coming back from the well, fell and froze to death.. His wife cut off pieces of his flesh and ate him.. My cousin, who was much younger than I, had three children, and those three children were eaten by neighbors.. A Directive issued by the Justice Department ensures that no official records of cannibalism are kept.. All such cases are withdrawn from courts, and dealt with behind the closed doors of the OGPU secret police.. Having killed a quarter of the nation’s population the Soviets staged one of the greatest cover-ups in history.. At a Grain Conference in London, the Soviets campaign vigorously to raise their grain export quotas from 25 million to 85 million bushels of wheat.. The scheme is effective.. Few can imagine a state exporting grain at the cost of its own people’s lives.. Indignant over the mass unemployment and hardships in their own countries many influential Socialist sympathizers unwittingly rally to Moscow’s defense.. George Bernard Shaw.. and a party of leading British Socialist visit the USSR and report, quite truthfully, that the restaurants where they eat are full of food.. Another important foreign guest to receive the red-carpet treatment is former French Prime Minister.. Edouard Herriot.. He is actually given a five-day guided tour of Ukraine at the height of the Famine! His favorable impressions of the country receive widespread publicity.. Edouard Herriot:.. (In French; English dub).. I would like to thank the government and the people of the Soviet Union for their warm reception.. Johann von Herwarth was a young attaché at the German Embassy in Moscow and after the Second World War, German Ambassador to Great Britain.. He recalls how the Soviets stage-managed Herriot’s entire trip.. Johann von Herwarth:.. The famous visit of the President of the French Cabinet Herriot, when he came to Kiev and he had the impression that everything was all right in Kiev; the streets were well cleaned through which he drove, he got a wonderful breakfast in his hotel and then in the streets there were trucks delivering the bread and that was unloaded and everything seemed to be fine.. And then he went to see a collective farm and when he spoke to the farmers – nobody knows if they were really farmers or put there just for the inspection of Herriot, because everything was fine, much better than under the Czars, and he cam home and said, “There’s no famine in the Ukraine.. The peasants are very happy.. Idealized scenes of work and happy peasant life are the staple diet in Soviet movie theatres, as the Famine rages on.. A sensational show-trial is staged in Moscow to further help distract the Soviet people from the failures of the Five Year Plan.. Six British engineers working in the USSR face the death sentence on trumped-up charges of sabotage, espionage and bribery.. The interest the trial arouses in the West gives the Soviets extra leverage to muzzle the foreign press corps.. Correspondents are bluntly told that if they want access to the trial, they are not to mention the Famine in their dispatches.. Having served their purpose, the British “saboteurs” are eventually released.. Malcolm Muggeridge arrived in the USSR in 1932.. He was one of the very few journalists to defy the Soviet travel an, and report on the real conditions in the countryside.. Malcolm Muggeridge:.. I don’t think that foreigners realize sufficiently how completely the Soviet authorities can control the foreign press.. The censorship worked simply that if you wrote a message, you had to take it along to the press department, I mean, the telegraph company wouldn’t accept it unless it was stamped by them.. You had submit it to them and they would read through and they would say, “You can’t say that.. As I began to be very critical of the whole setup, to criticize the use of terrorism by the government the articles I wrote on the famine would, undoubtedly, be censored.. I would have had to leave but I sent those over in the diplomatic bag.. They would never have got out of the country otherwise, and I left before they had appeared.. For every article on the Famine that appeared, two were published denying its existence.. Muggeridge recalls the most influential correspondent in Moscow was Walter Duranty, the Pulitzer Prize-wining journalist for the New York Times.. He was not only the greatest liar among the journalists in Moscow, but he was the greatest liar of any journalist that I’ve ever met in 50 years of journalism.. And we used to wonder whether in fact the authorities hadn’t got some kind of hold over him, because he so utterly played their game.. But it didn’t worry the New York Times who featured his reports.. When it came to the famine, the Great Famine in the Ukraine, brought about by collectivization, that was when his reporting was particularly disgraceful, because he denied that there was any famine.. The Soviets actually grant Duranty permission to tour Ukraine unchaperoned.. He reports in the Times that all talk of famine now is ridiculous.. Yet documents from the British Foreign Office reveal that in private conversations at the British Embassy Duranty said that as many as 10 million people had died.. When they were discussing the question of recognizing the Soviet Union, the United States government recognizing the Soviet Union, the articles by Duranty were considered as very valuable evidence on the side of recognition.. Shortly after the Soviet Foreign Minister Maxim Litvinov visits Washington in November 1933, the US recognizes the Soviet government and enters agreement in securing a balance of trade in favor of the United States.. The following year, the Soviet cover-up achieves its ultimate success: a seat in the League of Nations and this, in spite of the fact Western governments knew all about the Famine.. The government of Weimar, the democratic government, was well aware of what was going on in the Soviet Union.. But the attitude of the government was, I would say, you could call it passive, and with the younger one of the Embassy we always were of the opinion then at that period that we ought not to have any commercial relations with the criminal government which allowed hundreds of thousands and even millions of people to starve.. The government said we had already great unemployment in Germany, and if we stopped delivering manufactured goods to the Soviet Union, you would increase unemployment in Germany.. That was the situation.. Trade relations take precedence.. The Famine is regarded as a strictly internal Soviet affair.. The Western governments make their peace with Genocide.. The Communist writer, Mykola Khvylovyj reacts to the destruction of his people by starvation, the mass arrests of his friends and Party members, by taking his life.. The Party strongman, Mykola Skrypnyk, is denounced as an “enemy of the people.. ” He, too, commits suicide.. Lev Kopelev:.. These suicides came to symbolically represent the end of an epoch in the history of Ukraine.. Up to that time we believed that a normal national development was possible, as they taught us: a culture socialist in content and national in form.. Stalin ends the Famine with a single decree.. Having broken the Ukrainian farmers, he can afford to give out grain on the collectives during the harvest in 1933.. 1934.. Purges take place in the cities and mark the end of Ukrainian participation in the running of their country.. 27,000 Ukrainian Communists are arrested and replaced by Russians.. Only 36 out of 259 Ukrainian writers survive as the Terror intensifies; the jail cells are rapidly emptied, as “Ukrainian nationalism” becomes an offence punishable by death.. The Purges stop when the Nazis invade Ukraine in June 1941.. Millions perish as Hitler attempts to replace Stalin’s shackles with his own.. To divert attention from their own brutalities the Nazis invite an International Commission to inspect the mass graves left from Soviet rule.. In the town of Vynnytsia alone, the Commission uncovers the bodies of over 9000 brutally murdered farmers, workers, poets, priests….. No one can estimate the full total of those who disappeared in Stalin’s reign of terror.. Ukraine’s only crime was that she never adapted to wearing chains.. The Soviet Union denies to this day the famine ever took place.. But the Harvest of Despair cannot be forgotten..

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  • Title: Oral-History-Canadian Armed Forces
    Descriptive info: The Participation of Ukrainians in the Canadian Armed Forces during WWII.. Over 35,000 Canadians of Ukrainian descent served in the Canadian military during WWII.. These servicemen and women constituted the second-largest group of non-British, non-French serving in the Canadian armed forces.. The servicemen and women were not only an integral part of the Canadian military during wartime, but also made a significant contribution to the development of Canadian postwar policy on displaced persons and refugees.. In its archives, the UCRDC has a collection of oral history testimonies of these servicemen, which were conducted in 1989-1991 and have recently been digitized.. The format of the interviews follows a standard questionnaire and the interviews were conducted by UCRDC volunteers.. There are five key themes that come out of most of the interviews:.. Reasons for joining the armed forces;.. The efforts to maintain ‘Ukrainianess’ while overseas by the servicemen and women as exhibited through their participation in the Ukrainian Canadian Servicemens’ Club;.. Discrimination [absence of] against Ukrainians in the armed forces;.. The veterans’ relationship with the Central Ukrainian Relief Bureau, Ukrainian displaced persons, repatriation and attitudes towards the Soviet Union;.. And, finally, their views on the consequences for or impacts on Canadian society of Ukrainian participation in  ...   Kupchenko Wally.. Lachman Walter.. 1922.. Lucyk Michael.. 1916.. Army/Dental.. Malanchuk Nicholas.. Malanchuk William.. Melnyk Dimitri.. Army/Medical.. Michalchyshyn Bohdan.. Ochota Nicholas.. 1926.. Plawiuk Eugene.. Poohkay Peter.. Romanow Joseph.. Ottawa, ON.. Slonetsky Evhen.. 1924.. Smylski Peter.. Wach Peter.. Wachniak John.. Yaremchuk Stephen.. Yuzyk John.. Kereliuk William.. The UCRDC Oral History Archives have video interviews with the following Ukrainian Canadians who served in the Canadian Armed Forces during World War II.. The interviews are can be accessed at the UCRDC.. Please contact us at:.. info@ucrdc.. General Joseph Romanow.. Born in 1921, Saskatoon, Sask.. Served in the Royal Canadian Air Force.. Died in 2011.. Date of Interview: 1989.. Interviewer: Oksana Zakydalsky.. Length of Interview: 74 min.. Dr.. Michael Lucyk.. Born in 1916, Calgary, Alta.. Served in the Dental Corps.. Died in.. Length of Interview: 31 min.. William Kereliuk.. Born in 1917, Insinger, Sask.. Served in Royal Canadian Air Force.. Died in 2008.. Interviewer: Jurij Darewych.. Length of Interview: 61 min.. Peter Smylski.. Born in 1915, Dauphin, Man.. Died in 2002.. Interviewer: Oksana Zakydalsky.. Jurij Darewych.. Length of Interview: 101 min.. Anne Chraplywa-Smith.. Born in 1920, Lodewood, Man.. Served in the Canadian Women’s Army Corps.. Died in 2005.. Date of Interview: 1990.. Interviewer: Kwitoslawa Kushnir.. Length of Interview: 50 min..

    Original link path: /Oral-History-Canadian_Armed_Forces.html
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  • Title: Exhibits – Traveling Ukrainian Internment Exhibit – The Barbed Wire Solution
    Descriptive info: Ukrainians and Canada's First Internment Operations 1914-1920 (travelling exhibit).. The travelling exhibit –.. The Barbed Wire Solution: Ukrainians and Canada's First Internment Operations 1914-1920.. – explores the social, economic and political circumstances that led to Canada's first use of the War Measures Act.. It also looks at the conditions of daily life in the camps for the prisoners and their guards and leaves the viewer with a striking reminder of a dark and relatively unknown moment in Canadian history.. Launched in 1995, the exhibit was produced, sponsored and is owned by the UCRDC whose Exhibition Director is Svitliana Medwidsky.. Bojak Creative Strategies – an Ottawa-based firm of museum professionals –– was responsible for the research, writing, curatorship and design of the exhibit.. Support for the project was provided by the Government of Ontario, Ministry of Citizenship, Culture and Recreation.. Efforts are being made to provide a permanent home for the exhibit.. 01.. Origins.. In the late 1800’s, Canada’s frontier moved farther west.. The country needed more people to clear and cultivate the land.. The government saw the peasants of Eastern Europe as well suited for this task.. These people were accustomed to working hard and they were desperate to leave their hopeless conditions.. Ukrainians responded to Canada’s promise of free land with many eager immigrants.. At the time, the Russian empire owned four fifths of Ukraine’s territory.. The Austro-Hungarian Empire claimed the remaining one fifth.. At the turn of the century several thousand Ukrainians immigrated to Canada from provinces under Russian rule.. However, most of the more than 100,000 Ukrainian immigrants to Canada came from the regions of Galicia (Halychyna) and Bukovyna in the Austrian Empire.. Formally, Austria abolished serfdom in 1848.. However, its legacy of poverty, exploitation by landed and moneyed classes and lack of opportunity for improvement lingered in its wake.. For the most part, the peasant classes were illiterate.. They occupied small plots of land off which they tried to make a living and looked to the clergy and religion for guidance.. Many of them immigrated to Canada for an opportunity to improve life for themselves and their children.. Some members of a new educated class also immigrated to Canada.. For these, mostly young people, the major influences were social and political theories and ideals of the day.. They included a rising national consciousness, Ukrainian national populism and liberalism.. Canadian immigration officials labelled the immigrants in one of three ways.. They called them Austrian or Russian, depending on their passport.. Sometimes, they used a regional definition such as Galician or Bukovynian.. Sometimes, they simply called them Ruthernian.. This is an old term first used int the 11th century to refer to people who lived in the area that is now Ukraine.. 02.. Farming.. They arrived in Canada with little money.. Sometimes, they were in debt having borrowed money for their journey.. The long arduous travel exhausted them.. They did not speak English and were foreign to the English way of life.. To draw physical and cultural comfort and strength from one another, they settled in communities of their own kind.. Thus, large bloc settlements of Ukrainians developed in the prairies.. Usually, these were in the regions designated for them by the government and on the wooded lands which they preferred.. Like other homesteaders, the Ukrainian immigrants brought their religion, style of living, farming and housing, cultural norms and values with them.. From the first dugout home to the later farmhouse, the pioneer families worked hard for every minor improvement of life.. Three years after claiming  ...   ‘Dangerous Foreigners’: European Immigrant Workers and Labour Radicalism in Canada, 1896-1932.. 04.. Cities.. By the start of World War I, most major cities across Canada had a Ukrainian population.. It was concentrated in cheap tenement houses and substandard boarding establishments.. Ukrainian urban settlers organized their own communities with churches, reading and drama clubs, choirs and orchestras.. In the “old country” education had been a very rare commodity for them.. Therefore, they emphasized it for their children in Canada.. The young migratory workers were always on the move following job opportunities.. As a result, their incomes fluctuated.. They tended to bring the frontier influence into the cities.. This may have influenced how mainstream society defined and saw all Ukrainians.. Some perceived Ukrainians as a financial drain on society.. Archival records show that some Ukrainians received relief, some Ukrainian children received government support and some Ukrainians were imprisoned for criminal activity.. However, it does not appear that they had been on social aid or jailed in larger numbers than the general population.. 05.. Unemployment.. The depression of 1913 hit the immigrant labourers the hardest.. When the Canadian economy slackened, business needed fewer workers.. Jobs became scarce and Canadian citizens were prepared to take the types of work that previously they did not want.. They pressured employers to dismiss “foreigners” and “hire Canadian”.. Large scale unemployment among Ukrainian workers threw them into extreme poverty.. Those Ukrainian communities, who were better off, aided them with donations of money and farm produce.. Some cities set up relief schemes.. However, the growing number of hungry and desperate men did not seek charity.. They demanded fair wages for good work and roamed the country to find them.. The unemployed protested their condition and lobbied various levels of government for action.. In May 1914, for example, the Ukrainian Socialist Democratic Party organized a rally of thousands of men in Winnipeg.. They marched to the Manitoba Legislature and demanded “work or bread”.. Some marched on toward the United States hoping to find work there.. 06.. Societal Views.. Canadian citizens did not agree on the choice of Eastern Europe as the source for immigrants to Canada.. The distinctive and colourful lifestyle of these immigrants were at odds with the sobriety of Canadian society.. British Canadians saw them as resisting the British way of life.. For ages, Ukrainians had searched for a national identity.. In a modern sense of the term, they were only beginning to develop one at the turn of the century.. The immigrants brought this awakening and confusion with them.. In their Canadian communities they showed a variety of religious, ideological and regional identities.. If the Ukrainian immigrants could not articulate who they were, they knew who they were not.. They were not Western Europeans of Anglo-Celtic background whom the Canadians would have preferred to have as pioneers.. They did not fit into the mould that the Presbyterian and Methodist missionaries prepared for them.. Neither could they flourish in the Roman Catholic environment structured by the French Canadian clergy.. Since British Canadians were convinced of the superiority of their ways, they could not understand the immigrants’ reluctance to give up their own culture.. They did not try to understand the difference.. Instead they blamed the problems of the day on the difference and the people who bore it.. The following 24 topics dealing with Canada’s First Internment comprise the text of the Barbed Wire Solution exhibit.. For an historical essay on the Internment, go to the Education section:.. Internment of Ukrainians in Canada 1914 – 1920..

    Original link path: /Exhibits-Internment.html
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  • Title: Freedom had a Price, on the internment of Ukrainian-Canadians during WWI, by Yurij Luhovy
    Descriptive info: tells the little-known story of those Ukrainian immigrants who, described by the Canadian government as enemy aliens at the outbreak of World War One, found themselves subject to discriminatory and repressive measures for the next six years.. Between 1914 and 1920, about 80,000 Ukrainian immigrants were forced to register as enemy aliens, report regularly to the police, and carry government-issued identity papers at all times.. Over 5,000 of their compatriots suffered an even more severe fate, imprisoned in internment camps across the country.. Treatment was often harsh, and conditions grim.. Some died in the camps, many were sick or injured, and several were killed by guards while trying to escape.. By means of archival footage, vintage photographs, the compelling  ...   funding for the film.. It premiered on May 27,1994 at the St.. Lawrence Centre for the Arts in Toronto and was later shown on the CBC.. Freedom Had a Price constitutes an integral part of UCRDC’s travelling exhibit The Barbed Wire Solution.. 1994, 55 min 05 s.. Directed by.. : Yurij Luhovy.. Produced by.. Production Agency.. : La Maison de montage Luhovy Inc.. , producer and director of Freedom Had a Price, at the premiere of the film on May 27, 1994 at the St Lawrence Centre in Toronto.. The film received widespread reviews in the Canadian press:.. extraordinary documentary.. (Toronto Star); a powerful documentary (Edmonton Journal); This film is not about Ukrainians, it is about Canada.. (Montreal Gazette)..

    Original link path: /Film-Freedom_had_a_Price.html
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  • Archived pages: 169