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    Archived pages: 64 . Archive date: 2013-06.

  • Title: Collection of very brief program manuals for linux newbies and others - made in ubuntu.
    Descriptive info: .. This site.. contains a collection of very short minihowtos of various programs, and the idea is to get people started.. using these programs, without having to read a lot of documentation.. These minihowtos does not cover everything,.. only what I find is the most important things, and is without guarantee for any mistakes or errors, to save my time.. Supplementary you may consult all the gigantic amount of documentation, which exists elsewhere (the Internet etc).. I consider myself an enduser, and I have read lots and lots of documentation of various kinds, to be able to make this site,.. and I am not a programmer (their brains seem to be constructed different and vice versa *humour*).. To use these minihowtos, it is easiest to print them out.. These minihowtos to be used on your own responsibility.. Please make a donation (5 $), half will go to interest-free loan -or other aid to U-countries.. How to donate using PayPal (a short guide).. Enter your search terms.. Submit search form.. Please note: These minihowtos are.. Free to Use.. List of Minihowtos contained on this website:.. To download and open a minihowto:.. About www.. minihowto.. org.. Download www.. A short explanation about what www.. org is.. A Good Life Howto.. Download "A Good Life Howto" minihowto.. An instruction to keep your body healthy up into an old age (has nothing to do with computer data).. A learning howto.. Download "A Learning Howto" minihowto.. Akregator rss news and newspaper reader.. Download "Akregator rss news and newspaper reader minihowto".. Akregator is a KDE application for reading online news feeds e.. g.. newspaper online.. Ark version 2.. 6.. 4 an archiving tool.. Download ARK minihowto.. A program to store (or extract) several files into one big file (called an archive file).. Bittorrent, a download manager.. Download Bittorrent minihowto.. A file sharing program, mainly used to download big files (ISO files).. Command line of Linux (konsole).. Download "Linux commands minihowto".. A list of the Linux commands, I use most, also explains what a konsole (bash or xterm) is.. Compile and install a program.. Download "Compile and install" minihowto.. Examples of how to compile and install a program from a tarball source file (programname.. tar.. gz or programname.. bz2).. dd backup of an encrypted partition using puppy linux.. Download "dd backup of an encrypted partition using puppy minihowto.. Examples of how to backup -or restore a harddisk or a partition with the "dd" command using puppy 4.. 00 linux (probably more easy for a linux newbie to use).. dd_backup_of_a_partition_howto.. Download "dd_backup_of_a_partition_howto" minihowto.. A short explanation of how to backup a partition or a harddisk, using the "dd" command - please note that you can even backup an encrypted harddisk or encrypted partition.. Deb package install howto.. Download "deb package install minihowto".. A short explanation about how to install a deb package from the command line.. Download and burn an Image ISO file.. Download "Download and burn an ISO image file minihowto".. An ISO file is one big file, containing many files, typical a whole linux distribution.. Easy install of encrypted ubuntu 8.. 04 howto.. Download "Easy install of encrypted ubuntu 8.. 04 minihowto".. Small minihowto about how to install an encrypted ubuntu 8.. 04 on either a partition or a whole harddisk, without using "logical volumes - LVM".. Encryption, Kgpg version 1.. 2.. Download Kgpg encryption tool minihowto.. Encryption is a way to make files unreadable to other people, and to keep the contents secret (text, pictures, videos etc).. Encrypted ubuntu 8.. 04 Hardy Heron alternate install.. Download encrypted ubuntu 8.. 04 install minihowto.. A small minihowto about how to install an encrypted version of ubuntu 8.. 04 Hardy Heron.. Encryption of a directory using Fuse and Encfs.. Download Encryption of a directory minihowto.. How to encrypt one or more directories containing your sensitive images, files etc.. using the Fuse and Encfs system.. External harddisk, how to use.. Download External harddisk minihowto.. Howto partition, format and use an external harddisk or usb stick.. File Manager, How to use the filesystem.. Download File Manager, How to use the filesystem minihowto.. An instruction of how to copy, move and edit files etc.. Firestarter version 1.. 0.. 3 a firewall.. Download Firestarter mininowto.. A firewall is a program to make your computer invincible to the Internet.. Flexbackup backup.. Download Flexbackup minihowto.. A simple command line backup program for linux.. Freenet_version_0.. 7_sept_2008_(NEW).. Download Freenet minihowto (sept.. 2008  ...   Konqueror is both a webbrowser -and a file manager.. Krename version 3.. 13.. Download Krename minihowto.. A program to rename files.. KSirc version 1.. 12.. Download KSirc minihowto.. Another chat program.. Ksnapshot the KDE screenshot program.. Download Ksnapshot minihowto.. A program to take screenshots (single images) of the whole screen, or part of the screen.. Kubuntu Install.. Download Kubuntu Install minihowto.. Howto install the Kubuntu Linux distribution (the operating synstem and the basic programs).. Linux distribution, which to choose.. Download "Which Linux distribution minihowto".. A short explanation of the differences between the Linux distributions.. Lynx version 2.. 8.. Download Lynx minihowto.. A textual webbrowser (a very fast webbrowser without images).. Naming of harddisk devices in linux.. Download "Naming of harddisk devices in Linux".. Describes how harddisk -usb device names in Linux are applied - "/dev/hda - /dev/sda1 - etc" are examples.. Network Setup.. Dowload Network Setup minihowto.. A very short explanation of how to set up a small home network (connect two -or more computers, so you can share files etc.. ).. OpenOffice Writer 2.. Download OpenOffice writer minihowto.. A very short user manual of how to use the OpenOffice.. org Writer text editor.. Partimage Backup.. Download Partimage Backup minihowto.. A program to backup -or restore a single partition (e.. your whole Linux distribution, with your personal data).. Recoll free text search tool v.. 1.. Download Recoll minihowto.. A free text search program a la google to find almost any text -or file on your harddisk.. Scrapbook, another webpage manager.. Download Scrapbook minihowto.. A Firefox extension program to keep lots of important webpages on your harddisk (an easy way to save lots of Internet information for your personal use, works also as a bookmark program)-.. Skype older debian ubuntu versions can be downloaded here.. Older ubuntu debian versions of Skype can be downloaded from here - where can i find older debian skypes versions.. Strigi version 0.. 5 a local search engine.. Download Strigi minihowto.. A search program, so you very fast can find almost any files on your harddisk.. Super Grub Disk (SGD) version 0.. 9588.. Download Super Grub Disk minihowto.. A program to easy restore your Grub bootloader, in case of problems.. Synaptic Packet Manager.. Download Synaptic Packet Manager minihowto.. A program to install -and uninstall *.. deb (apt) programs (packages), and to check your program files etc.. Systemrescuecd live cd.. Download Systemrescuecd minihowto.. A live cd with a collection of some of the most important linux tools - programs.. Text editing.. Download the "Text editing" minihowto.. An explanation of how to edit text (e.. in an text editor like Kwrite/Kate".. Ubuntu 8.. 04 Hardy Heron Alternate Install.. Download Ubuntu 8.. 04 Hardy Heron Install minihowto.. A very short install explanation, mostly shown by screenshots.. Wget_version_1.. 10.. Download the wget minihowto.. Wget download program is a stable command line downloader, used to download whole websites etc.. Open a shell konsole.. "mkdir /home/user/downloads" (Then a directory of the name "downloads" will be created) ("user" is your linux username).. Then click on one of the download links, and a *.. tgz file will be downloaded to your komputer.. Choose "save to disk" and click "OK", and the file will be saved to "Desktop" (by default), or choose another directory.. Right click on the *.. tgz file, and choose "Extract - extract to".. Choose /home/user/downloads and click "OK" (presumed you have kde and the ark archive program installed).. A directory containing the Freenet minihowto will then have been created in /home/user/downloads.. Click on the *.. html file in this directory to open the minihowto.. :.. Goto List of programs.. (PayPal is an international system to transfer money from one e-mail address to another e-mail address).. In order to use it, you need to go to www.. paypal.. com - and then create a Personal account, which is proper for private persons.. Click on the "Sign up now" button, and then follow the instructions, and you will end up with your e-mail address as your.. PayPal user name, and a password.. To add funds to your account, goto www.. com, and login with you e-mail address and password.. Then click on the "Add Funds" button, and follow the instructions, which is different depending on your country.. To send money to another e-mail address, goto www.. com and login.. Then click on the "Send Money" button.. PayPal works in some 190 different countries, click here to see:.. 11/2009 :-)..

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  • Title: About www.minihowto.org
    Descriptive info: About minihowto.. for linux.. (I am using ubuntu 7.. 10 and KDE) :-).. Back to Main Page.. This is a very short version, and if you want to know more, go to the Internet etc.. This howto is without any guarantee, and you may use it on your own responsibility only.. There may be errors, but I do not want to use too much time to write this minihowto.. To check specific words or items you may try to.. Search.. in:.. http://en.. wikipedia.. org/wiki/Main_Page/.. or.. http://www.. google.. com/.. This is a website with a collection of very short mini howtos, mostly for ubuntu linux, but can be used for most other linux distributions as well.. It is intended to be used by people, who are new to linux, and want to get started using the most elementary programs.. These minihowtos are attempted to be written in a way, so you do not need  ...   not too hot brand new, but probably at least one year old.. At the same time, I suggest you to.. use the newest versions of ubuntu.. - at december 2007 Ubuntu 7.. 10 "Gutsy Gibbon" (then most bugs are removed).. I am using ubuntu, as it to me seems to be one of the linux distributions, with the most extensive up to date documentation, mailling lists, user groups etc.. As a starter, I suggest you to subscribe to the ubuntu-users mailing list.. If you want linux to be installed together with windows, I suggest you to use windows xp, and not vista.. Linux needs at least 10 gb of harddisk space, and windows xp will need aprox the same space, total of 20 gb.. I have collected some important links for you to study:.. ubuntu.. https://lists.. com/mailman/listinfo/ubuntu-users.. nabble.. com/ubuntu-users-f12761.. html.. http://packages.. com/gutsy/allpackages.. http://ubuntuguide.. org/wiki/Ubuntu:Gutsy.. thecodingstudio.. com/opensource/linux/screenshots/index.. php.. com/getubuntu/download.. johnbradbury.. com/ubuntu-video-first-impressions/.. com/ubuntu-video-office-functionality/.. com/ubuntu-video-multimedia-support/.. 12/2007..

    Original link path: /about_minihowto_org/about_minihowto_org.html
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  • Title: A good life howto
    Descriptive info: A good life.. Mini Howto.. 04 and kde 3.. 6) *humour*.. This i a very short version, and if you want to know more, go to the Internet etc.. There may be errors, but I do not want to use too much time to write this howto.. My idea is to make documentation, so you can at the least start using the system.. I (66 years old) have abstracted what I find most important, from lots and lots of documentation.. To check specific words you may use: http://en.. org/wiki/Main_Page (search).. It's easiest to print this howto out, to use it, by your side (or when walking) ! !.. A condensed list of exercises for print out.. In 1995 I had a blood cloot (Typical sympthoms continous pain which never stops - then get to the hospital within hours!!).. In 1998 I had another one.. Here is a suggestion for others to do what I did (and now I am improving tremendous, and as fit as a young child).. First, and most important, you MUST walk half an hour EVERY day (no need to run, but I run 1 minute each time).. It has to be non stop walking (no split walking in the garden or where ever you work).. It is a continous process - months-years.. When I walk I also get mentally better, and often get new ideas on my tour, and even solve problems.. If you have a problem (a programmer maybe, or some family problem or.. ), and get stuck, then stop thinking and wait.. for to tomorrow, and then your brain have had time to process the matter, and alså to find old data (somewhere else in the brain),.. and to combine it with the new data.. Well, that's my personal theory, and how it works for me.. Besides this walk, I combine it with my personal version of Alexander technique.. You can do it on your walk (I do it 3 times on my walk), but you may also lay on your back with bent legs and do it.. During my health process I sometime had cramp (felt like a blood clot), and then I laid down on my bed, and did Alexander technique,.. and then when the cramp went away I  ...   technique pass:.. Think.. of your toes (.. ONLY THINK.. - suddenly the body will begin to relax the muscles, after a time).. 2.. Fore part under your feet.. 3.. Backpart under your feet.. 4.. Ankle (of your foot).. 5.. Whole underleg.. 6.. Whole area around your knees.. 7.. Thighs.. 8.. Bottom and under part of your spine.. 9.. Middle part of the spine.. 10.. Upper part of your spine and back of the head.. 11.. THINK.. your tongue up in the upper part of your mouth.. 12.. Lips.. 13.. Face and eyes.. 14.. Forehead and top of head.. 15.. Fingers.. 16.. Hands.. 17.. Wrists.. 18.. Under arms.. 19.. Elbows.. 20.. Upper arms.. 21.. Shoulders.. 22.. Upper part of breast and shoulders.. 23.. Upper part of back and shoulders.. 24.. of a corset, all muscles around lower stomach and hips.. 25.. Muscle from between the legs and whole way to the forehead (think of one long muscle).. 26.. Muscle from between the legs and whole way to the back of the head (think of one long muscle).. 27.. THINK of one long muscle from your right hip to your left shoulder.. 28.. Muscle from left hip to right shoulder.. 29.. Muscle from right foot to left shoulder.. 30.. Muscle from left foot to right shoulder.. 31.. THINK of a long muscle from backside of thighs to but and lower part of your back (tenderloins).. 32.. Muscle from backside of thighs, between your legs and to lower part of stomach.. 33.. of one long muscle from left foot to left ear.. 34.. Muscle from right foot to right ear.. 35.. Muscle from toes to forehead.. 36.. Muscle from heels to back of your head.. I have made this website, as a friend, knowing that everybody is responsible for their own lives.. Forgot to tell, that I very seldom have pain in my back, and head ache is almost non existent (before I had a lot) *smile*.. One more thing: When you take your walk, don't look down into the ground, but up into the skyes (takes some training).. A condensed list.. of the Alexander Technique exercises for print out by it self:.. of a long muscle from backside of thighs to but and lower part of your back (tenderloins).. 8/2007..

    Original link path: /a_good_life_howto/A%20good%20life%20howto.html
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  • Title: A learning minihowto
    Descriptive info: Learning Mini Howto.. :-).. How to learn the easy way:.. Chapter one.. In order to learn the subject of some text, read the text carefully and concentrate on the subject.. Even if there are things you do not understand at all - sometime in the past, maybe years ago, you might have heard -or read about something which relates to the subject - and therefore is sitting just waiting to be used.. When you get tired from reading, put the text away, and do something complete different from reading, like taking a walk, a nap, do some cooking, watch stupid tv, talk to your neighbour - something which brings your mind completely away from the learning subject.. When finished reading the whole text, put it away, and wait to the next day.. During this period your subconsciouness will work on the subject, completely without you noticing anything or feeling anything.. Then, after a day or more, do it all over again with the same subject text, and you will notice, that your brain has found some related information, and has related it to the subject, and you begin to understand - your brain begins to recognize things.. It takes time for the brain to work up and adapt, just like a computer to calculate complex data, which can take days, weeks or  ...   and you will be a happy person.. If you absolutely will do something which you are not capable of doing, you will end up frustrated, unhappy or even depressed.. Some examples of what some people I have heard of has been able to do:.. Repair airplanes and install engines, insulate houses, build chimneys and invent various sorts of technical products.. Invent and build a machine wich can produce contact lenses, has even prepared to make bifocale contact lenses.. Zinedin Zidane (football player) can lift the ball, look around at the same time, combine the muscles of the body accordingly, and make goal.. Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr, did complicated matematics.. Gut fish (or catch fish) faster than anyone else.. Work at a factory doing the same few movements all day long, going home in the evening very content and happy.. Make paintings or beautiful sculptures.. Make these fantastic computer programs - programmers.. Write books for children of the world, Astrid Lindgren of Sweden.. Bill Gates, make business and become the richest man on earth.. Etc.. etc.. It's very important not to do, what your "learning modules" will not let you do, even if you want to.. Accept who you are, and what you can - otherwise you will have to "install" more "learning moudles" which cannot be done at this time.. 2007..

    Original link path: /learning_howto/a%20learning%20minihowto.html
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  • Title: Akregator rss news newspaper reader
    Descriptive info: Akregator rss news newspaper reader minihowto.. (I am using ubuntu 8.. 04 and kde) :-).. Program for reading newspapers etc.. This is a "fairly" short version, and if you want to know more, go to the Internet etc.. To check specific words you may try:.. org/wiki/Main_Page.. (search).. I am mainly showing the use of Akregator by screenshots:.. Above is the main Akregator window - it consists of 3 smaller windows:.. Click on the small downwards showing arrow to update the newspapers.. Left is the window where you choose your newspaper.. Top right is the window where you choose the article to read.. Bottom right is the link to the newspaper -or to a selected article - you may click on the "Complete Story" link to read article, and then the article opens in a new tab - see.. below:.. In order to add an  ...   page).. Above here is the rss paper "usatoday" opened - please note that each article you choose are opened in its individual tab.. In order to set up akregator according to your own choice choose: Settings - Configure Akregator:.. Here you can make your setup in each of the 5 tabs: General - Archive - Appearance - Browser - Advanced.. Here follows the main menus, showing submenus:.. Here are some rss newspapers addresses which might be inserted using: Feed - Add Feed:.. irishtimes.. com/breakingnews.. independent.. ie/?service=Rss.. mg.. co.. za/section/.. iol.. za/index.. php?set_id=1 click_id=79.. dn.. no.. cnn.. com/?eref=rss_topstories.. theaustralian.. news.. com.. au/.. spiegel.. de.. zeit.. de/.. sueddeutsche.. http://derstandard.. at/?url=/.. ft.. com/home/europe.. economist.. http://politiken.. dk/.. http://ekstrabladet.. erhvervsbladet.. dk/section/nyhedsoversigt/ template=rss mime=xml/.. bt.. nyteknik.. se/.. guardian.. uk?gusrc=rss feed=networkfront.. thesun.. uk/sol/homepage/video/article300101.. ece?channel=Sun+Exclusive.. nytimes.. com/pages/arts/index.. html?partner=rssnyt.. htm.. http://jp.. nordjyske.. dk.. expressen.. se.. http://sydsvenskan.. se/DNet/custom-jsp/rss.. jsp?d=1399 numItems=20.. nyhetsportalen.. timesonline.. uk/tol/news/.. 7/2008..

    Original link path: /akregator_rss_news_reader/Akregator%20rss%20news%20newspaper%20reader.html
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  • Title: Ark a very short minihowto
    Descriptive info: ARK version 2.. 4.. To check specific words you may try: http://en.. Index Of Page:.. To archive some files.. To put some files into this empty archive.. To open an archive file.. Use the tar command in a bash konsole.. tar cvzf lynx_howto.. tgz lynx_howto.. tar zxvf lynx_howto.. tgz.. To open the "lynx_howto.. tgz archive.. A typical example.. Ark is an archiving tool - an archive file is a file containing other files (and directories) in a compressed form (or not) - two typical file types are:.. Gzipped Tar Archive "*.. gz" and Bzip2-ed Tar Archive "*.. bz2 - but there are other types.. open ark (see below):.. Back to Index of Page.. Then click on the "New" icon.. - select "Gzipped Tar Archive" in the "Filter:" (click down arrow) bar and write the name of the archive file.. "anarchive" in the "Location:" bar (see below) - Save:.. This creates an empty archive file of the name "anarchive.. gz".. click on the "Add files" button.. and the file manager window opens up (see below):.. "Ctrl+left click" one on the files and then click "ctrl+a" to select all the files (see below):.. Now click "OK" - and the archive gets created, filled with the selected files "anarchive.. gz" (see below):.. , click on the file name "anarchive.. gz" (see below):.. Then select the files (some or all), right click one of the selected files - choose "Copy to", and then select at directory to copy to (below):.. Then select a directory (one of the blue icons.. to put the files into - you open a directory to get to a subdirectory, by clicking the "+" (below) -.. then click "OK" (you see the selected folder in the lower horizontal bar.. ):.. You can also.. use the bash konsole.. , to work from the command line, when ark gives you troubles (I  ...   to open the "lynx_howto.. , "cd" to the directory where the archive file is placed - just an example - (cd /home/niels3/test).. and then write ".. " on the command line, and the contents of the archive file will be extracted - unpacked and copied.. into the directory - (see below):.. "man tar": opens the man page for the "tar" command (if you like to see).. "cd /home/niels/test": change directory to the "test" folder (containing the lynx_howto.. tgz archive).. "ls": lists the content of the directory.. "tar zxvf lynx_howto.. tgz": extracts -and unpacks the contents of the archive file into the same directory where the archive file is placed.. , a downloaded *.. tgz archive file.. Lets suggest that you have just downloaded an archive file from the internet "lynx_howto787.. tgz" and placed it into the.. "/home/niels3/downloads_/minihowto" folder:.. In order to open it, and get it on your harddisk, click it with the left mouse button:.. Note the name in the address bar, beginning with "tar:/.. ", which means that the opened file is placed in an temporary location, and will.. disappear, when you switch of the computer.. In order to get it copied permanently onto your harddisk, click on the blue directory "lynx_howto" (above) with the right mouse button, and.. choose "Copy to" - Browse:.. Then the file manager window opens, and select "/home/niels3/downloads_/minihowto" (below) - see lover horizontal address bar - click "OK".. Now the archive file is extracted and opened, and its content is copied onto the harddisk permanently (see below):.. When you left click on the blue folder (above), the contents is seen (below):.. This last procedure is very important to learn, to be able to get downloaded archive files opened and copied onto the harddisk, for permanent.. use.. It is used both for text files, but also for collections of pictures and video files etc..

    Original link path: /ark_howto/Ark%20a%20very%20short%20minihowto.html
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  • Title: Bittorrent - a very short minihowto
    Descriptive info: Bittorrent - a.. Back to Main Page of minihowto.. The *.. torrent file downloaded.. Download started automatically.. Download finished.. Bittorrent is program, which is used to download files, via other downloaders, a variant of file share.. The idea is to avoid to overload a single server, which might happen, if many people were all downloading the same big file at the same time.. I will explain it by an example - lets download a kubuntu iso image by using bittorrent.. First the "Bittorrent" program must be installed, which it is on most linux distributions by default.. Then we will need a small file, the name of which ends on ".. torrent", like "kubuntu-7..  ...   aprox.. 27 kb) (below):.. To get the real.. "kubuntu-7.. iso" image file (of some 690 mb) downloaded, you just left click on the "torrent" file,.. and the "Bittorrent" program will ask you which folder to download the file into (see below):.. We have (above) specified to download the file "kubuntu-7.. iso" file into the /home/niels3/downloads_/kubuntu.. directory.. Click on the "Save" button, and the "Bittorrent".. program will start the download automatic.. (see below):.. (below):.. And here you see the downloaded iso image file sitting in the download folder:.. Hereafter it is just to burn the iso image into an install cd - use K3B or other cd burner, and an linux install can begin :-)..

    Original link path: /bittorrent_howto/Bittorrent%20-%20a%20very%20short%20minihowto.html
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  • Title: Command line in Linux, a small minihowto
    Descriptive info: Command line.. 6).. My idea is to make documentation, so you can at least start using the system.. To check specific words you may.. click here to open wikipedia.. (use search box, left side middle).. It's easiest to print this howto out, to use it, by your side !.. Index:.. Open a Konsole - the command line.. apropos - to find a man page.. The Bash shell.. Cat: To concatenate (join) files - or view contents of a text file.. cd: Change working directory.. chmod: To change file permissions.. chown: Change file owner and group.. cp: Copy a file.. df: sizes of your mounted partitions.. dmesg: to print out the bootup messages.. mogrify: convert image files.. locate: to find a certain file.. ln: To make links between files.. ls: Lists directory contents.. mkdir: Make a directory.. Back to Index.. mount: To mount a filesystem.. mv: Rename file.. ps: Report a snapshot of the current processes (to see which programs are running).. pwd: Present working directory.. rm: Remove files.. rmdir: Remove empty directory.. split: Splits a file into pieces.. sudo: Execute a command as "superuser".. tar: The tar archive command.. top: Display Linux tasks (to see which programs are running -and their PID's (Process ID).. whereis: locate the binary (file to start a program).. In order to use the command line.. open a Konsole.. Choose K-menu - System - Konsole:.. There are other Terminal programs to use (Terminal, xterm, yakuake etc.. Below is shown how the Konsole looks with the "ls" command inserted on the command line, and the result of this command is also shown:.. Bash is the default shell program used in most Linux distributions, e.. Debian and Ubuntu etc.. For each Bash command, and a lot other linux commands, you can also give the "man" command followed by the very command name, like "man ls" for the "ls".. command, in order to see the documentation for the "ls" command - all man pages are organized in the same way.. You could take a quick look at: "man bash" and "man man".. Click here to get an alphabetically list of linux commands.. I will following give a short explanation of some of the linux commands I use most:.. apropos.. : Search in the "man" pages "Names" and "Description" sections for a keyword - see "man apropos".. Example: "apropos ls".. bash.. : Gives an explanation of.. the Bash shell.. - see "man bash".. Example: "man bash".. cat.. : To see content of a text file, or.. to concatenate.. (join together) files - see "man cat".. Example 1: "cat file.. txt | less" - will show you the contents on the screen of the text file "file.. txt" (one page at a time - shift page with the "Page Down/Page Up" button).. Example 2: If you have a lot of text files you want joined together to one big text file:.. First copy all the files to an empty directory.. Then cd to that directory.. Then run: "cat * bigfile.. txt" - and all the files will be joined together into one file by the name "bigfile.. txt".. Sometimes you might download a video file, split up into several files, called something like file.. avi.. 000, file.. 001.. file.. 98 etc.. from a newsgroup server -.. in this case copy all the files into an empty directory and run: "cat * file.. avi", and you have a complete video file called "file.. avi" ready to play.. Example: cd /home/user4/howto - will bring you to the "/home/user4/howto" directory.. - see "man pwd" - will show you where you are:.. - see "man chmod".. Example: "sudo chmod -R 644 /home" - change the permissions of the "/home" directory and all its subdirectories -and files to "rw-r--r--".. Example 2: "sudo chmod -R 777 /home" - change the permissions of the "/home" directory and all its subdirectories -and files to "rwxrwxrwx".. The permissions - r=read, w=write, x=execute - the letters are: "rwx rwx rwx" - the equivalent numbers are: "421 421 421".. Explanation:.. "6" means "4+2+0" equals "rw" - "4" means "4+0+0" equals "r" - "4" means "4+0+0" equals "r" - result = "644" equals "rw- r-- r--".. "7" means "4+2+1" equals "rwx" - "7" means "4+2+1" equals "rwx" - "7" means "4+2+1" equals "7" - result = "777" equals "rwx rwx rwx".. - see "man chown".. example: "sudo chown -R root:root /home" - Changes the ownership to user="root", group="root" for the "/home" directory with all subdirectories -and folders.. - see "man cp".. Example: "cp file.. txt /home/user/a_directory/file2.. txt" -  ...   you have go through the listed suggestions.. Note, that all suggestions are given with full pathnames to the file, like "/etc/fstab" etc.. l.. n: To make links between files.. - see "man ln".. (A link is a small file, leading to a real file, when clicked).. Example: "ln -s real_file link_file" (The "real_file" is the real file [placed first], and the "link_file" is the link [which is placed last] ).. , lists both subdirectory -and file names of a directory - see "man ls".. Example: "ls" - lists the contenst of the directory you are in.. Example 2: "ls -al" - lists the contents of the directory you are in, with more information.. Example 3: "ls -al | less - lists the contents of the directory you are in, one page at a time (use "Page Down/Page Up" to move down/up one page at a time).. Example 4: "ls -al /home/user" - lists the contents of the "/home/user" directory.. - see "man mkdir".. Example: "mkdir /home/user/another_directory" - creates a new empty directory of the name "another_directory" in the "/home/user" directory.. (e.. an external harddisk formatted with an ext3 file system) - see "man mount".. Example: "sudo mount /dev/sdc1 /media/disk" - means mount the external harddisk "/dev/sdc1" on the "/media/disk" directory - (this is normally done automatic).. mv: Renames file.. s - see "man mv".. Example: "mv file.. txt file2.. txt" - renames the file "file.. txt" to "file2.. ps: Report a snapshot of the current processes.. (programs) - see "man ps".. Example: "ps -A | grep firefox" - to find the PID (process ID) number of "Firefox".. To find the PID of "Firefox", and then to "kill" the program (thought situation, where the "Firefox" program has stopped working and we want to "kill" it (below):.. - see "man rm".. Example: "rm file.. txt" - removes the file "file.. txt" from the directory you are in.. Example 2: "rm *.. txt" - removes all the files with the ".. txt" extension from the directory you are in.. Example 3: "rm /home/user/*.. txt" - removes all the files with the extension ".. txt" from the "/home/user" directory.. rmdir: Removes empty directories.. - see "man rmdir".. Example: "rmdir /home/user/a_directory" - removes the "a_directory" directory, which must be empty.. - see "man split".. Example: split -b 20k bigfile smallfile - splits the big file "bigfile" into small files ("smallfileaa", "smallfileab", "smallfileac" etc) of 20 kb each.. To concatenate (join) the small files into one big file, put all the small files into an empty directory.. cd to that directory.. Then run from the command line: "cat smallfile* bigfile", and the files are again joined into one big file "bigfile".. - see "man sudo" (The superuser can execute commands, which a normal user cannot do - a safety measure).. Example: "sudo konqueror" - opens the konqueror webbrowser as superuser, which allows you to copy, move or edit files etc.. , owned by user "root".. When you exexute a sudo command you must insert your user password, when asked for it.. tar: The tar command.. , used to archive (create and compress) a big file from several directories and files, or unarchive (extract and uncompress) the.. contents of a tar file - see "man tar".. Example 1 (to create a tar archive):.. Place all the directories and files you want to make into an archive file, into an empty directory.. cd into that directory.. Then execute: "tar cvzf archive.. tgz *" - and the whole contents of the directory you are in is archived and compressed into the archive file "archive.. tgz", and this file is.. placed in the same directory.. Example 2 (to extract a tar archive):.. Place the archive file "archive.. tgz" in an empty directory.. (Please note: The ".. tgz" extension is the same as the ".. gz extension").. Then execute: "tar zxvf archive.. tgz" - which unpacks -and uncompresses the archive file "archive.. tgz" into the directory you are in.. top: Display Linux tasks.. - see "man top".. Example: "top" - starts the top program, and you can see which programs are running, how much processor power they use (%) and their "PID's" and more.. - see "man whereis".. Example: "whereis gimp" - will give the path to the file "gimp" that starts gimp: "/usr/bin/gimp".. Note: Most binaries are placed in: /usr/local/sbin - /usr/local/bin - /usr/sbin - /usr/bin - /sbin - /bin.. Most programs can be started from the command line, by just inserting its name (gimp, firefox, kate, kmail etc.. ) and then press "enter".. 9/2007..

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  • Title: compile_and_install_a_program_minihowto
    Descriptive info: Compiling and installing Mini Howto.. 10 and kde) :-).. It is easiest to print this page out, and have it by your side.. Some programs are not existing as debian packages for various reasons, but can be downloaded as source tarball files (*.. gz or *.. bz2), and then compiled.. and installed (really a debian package is a kind of automatic compiling and installation file).. A compiler (e.. gcc) is a program, which transforms human readable text (source code made by a data programmer).. looks like this:.. -----------------------------------------------.. #ifndef HPROF_EVENT_H.. #define HPROF_EVENT_H.. /* From BCI: */.. void event_object_init(JNIEnv *env, jthread thread, jobject obj);.. into machine code (not understandable by humans - but understandable by a computer).. \ ` d h l p t x | ! U S [ �' t N X[ 5$ %( %, h %0 h %4 h %8 h.. In order to show how a compiling and installation is done, I will download and install the "xprogram" program (a name made up - nonexistent).. Open a konsole and run the following commands:.. mkdir /home/user1/xprog (creates a directory called "xprog" in my home directory).. cd /home/user1/xprog (change directory to "/home/user1/xprog").. wget http://xxxx.. org/xprogram.. gz (downloads the "xprogram.. gz" tarball into the "/home/user1/xprog" directory).. ls (check that the file is downloaded).. tar zxvf xprogram.. gz (unpacks the tarball and creates a directory, containing the source files, called "xprogram").. (If the tarball is of the tar.. bz2 format run: tar xjvf xprogram.. cd /home/user1/quad/xprogram (change directory to the "/home/user1/quad/xprogram" directory).. At this point you should open the files "INSTALL" and/or "README" if they exist, and read their contents, as they contain important information about how to.. compile and install the program (same procedure with other tarball installations):.. /configure (configures the program for compiling).. make (compiles the program).. sudo make install (installs the program - has to be done as sudo).. Now the program should be installed and ready to use.. In order to view where the newly installed program files are placed, run:.. sudo updatedb (updates the locate database - takes a few minutes).. locate xprogram (shows  ...   an example).. Then click on the third link "GPodder 0.. 5 download - GPodder" (see above):.. Then click on the green link:click on: "http://prdownload.. berlios.. de/gpodder/gpodder-0.. gz " and again click on one of the Download links (see below):.. and choose "Save to disk" - OK:.. Then a dialog window shows that the tarball has been saved to "Desktop" (on my system):.. Could look different on another system.. Then just move the tarball from the Desktop to the "gpodder" directory:.. First open a Konqueror File Manager window:.. Then click on the "Reduce windows size icon".. Then reduce the window size by dragging with the left mouse cursor in the lower right corner of the file manager window.. Then place the window in a proper position on the desktop by holding the "alt" button down and dragging with the left mouse cursor anywhere in the window.. Next drag and drop the gpodder tarball file from the desktop into the gpodder directory (see below):.. Then leftclick on the "gpodder-0.. gz" tarball (see above), and a temporary directory with the source files are opened (see below):.. Now right click on the "gpodder-0.. 5" temporary directory (above) (see Location tar:/home/user1/gpodder/gpodder-0.. gz) and choose "Copy to" - Browse:.. Then choose "gpodder" directory - OK (see below):.. and the "gpodder-0.. gz" tarball file is extracted as a real directory "gpodder-0.. 5", containing all the source files (see below):.. Now the gpodder source source files can be compiled (.. /configure - make - sudo make install) as shown in the "INSTALL" file (in this case only "sudo make install".. is needed to be executed) (see the contents of the gpodder-0.. 5 directory below):.. In order to proceed you should run the following commands in a konsole:.. cd /home/user1/gpodder/gpodder-0.. 5 (change directory to "gpodder-0.. 5").. sudo make install (installs the gpodder program).. This is only an example showing the principle of how to download and extract a tarball file using a File Manager.. A lot of things in linux can be done in several different ways, so everybody has to choose what he/she likes the best!.. 11/2007..

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  • Title: dd backup of an encrypted partition using puppy linux
    Descriptive info: dd Backup of an encrypted partition or harddisk using Puppy Linux Minihowto.. How to use the dd command to make a backup of a partition or a harddisk of an encrypted ubuntu 8.. 04, using Puppy 4.. 00.. This minihowto is made mainly using screenshots, but some screenshots are missing, as I did not know how to make them.. Download a puppy 4.. 00 iso image and burn it into a puppy live-cd:.. download iso image.. (Further reading from puppy sites).. Insert the puppy live-cd and boot the computer (start up the computer):.. Then follows a few more dialogs, where you can select place and size etc.. of the pup_save.. 2fs file - not shown.. You may run the "gparted" command from the command line, in order to see the names (and size) of the partitions.. Please note /dev/hda2 which is an encrypted partition.. You can run the "fdisk -lsu" command in order to see the designations (names) of the partitions on the computer which makes it more easy to run the commands.. on the command line.. Overview of the dd command.. In order to make a backup of the whole harddisk (/dev/hda) by the name of "image.. gz" onto an external harddisk (/dev/sda1) run following command:.. dd if=/dev/hda | gzip /mnt/sda1/image.. gz.. Please note, that you  ...   gz image back onto the hda1 partition run the following command:.. gunzip -c /mnt/sda1/image1.. gz | dd of=/dev/hda1.. In order to make a backup of the hda2 partition run the following command:.. dd if=/dev/hda2 | gzip /mnt/sda1/image2.. Please note, that you might choose another name than "image2.. In order to restore the image2.. gz image back onto the hda2 partition run the following command:.. gunzip -c /mnt/sda2/image1.. gz | dd of=/dev/hda2.. /dev/hda2 must NOT be mounted.. Please note, that the names of the harddisk block devices can be different according to which type of harddisk you use:.. Older types of harddisks (pci) are called hda - hda1 - hda2 etc.. Newer types of harddisks (sata) are called sda -sda1 - sda2 etc.. External harddisks are using the sd* (sda - sda1 etc.. designations (names).. The operating system (linux) will automatically designate the names.. In order to see the names, you may run the following command:.. fdisk -lsu.. In order to open the "gparted" program, to see the names -and sizes in a more human way run the following command:.. gparted.. Please also note, that the above "dd" command does not care what kind of data (linux or windows etc.. ) is contained in the partitions (on the harddisk).. it copies the data as low level data blocks..

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  • Title: dd_backup_of_a_partition_howto
    Descriptive info: Backup of a partition or harddisk using dd Mini Howto.. How to use the dd command to make a backup of a partition or a harddisk in ubuntu.. In order to do a dd backup, I find it easy to use a SystemRescueCd -.. You can download a systemrescuecd iso image here.. It needs to be burnt into a systemrescue live cd - I have used a version 0.. 3 in this example.. Insert the systemrescue live-cd and start up your computer - following is a sequence of screenshots:.. Just press enter.. As I am using a Danish keyboard, I inserted "dk" - then press enter (please choose your keyboard country type).. Shows the command prompt of an ordinary user.. To become root insert "su" - then press enter.. Here is showed an empty command line, and the "#" shows that you are root (also called superuser).. Change directory to /dev.. Lists the contents of the /dev directory - in order to check out the names of the harddisk devices (sda - sda1 - sda2 - sdb - sdb1) which are to be used in dd.. Brings you up one level - means back to /home/yourusername directory (cd without the two dots will always bring you back to /home/yourusername, also).. Creates the /media directory - to be used for mounting the external harddisk (/dev/sdb1) partition.. Mounts the external  ...   the partition is 40 GB, and the size of the installed data is only e.. 4 GB, the image will still be of 40 GB, so it is important to have an external harddisk,.. which is much bigger than your internal harddisk.. Please also be careful not to exchange "if" for "of" or vice versa, as it might have a catastrophal impact, maybe deleting some important data.. To backup a partition of 40 GB took me some 27 minutes (time will depend on the speed of your processor etc).. Restores the "dd_backup_boot_partition_200608.. img" back onto the first partition "/dev/sda1".. Restores the "dd_backup_ubu_enc_partition_200608.. img" onto the second partition "/dev/sda2".. To make a backup of a complete harddisk run the following command:.. This command creates an exact copy of the whole internal harddisk "/dev/sda" by the name "dd_backup_whole_harddisk_200608.. img" on the external harddisk "/dev/sda".. To backup a harddisk of 80 GB took me some 77 minutes.. Restores "dd_backup_whole_harddisk_200608.. img" back onto the whole harddisk "/dev/sda".. Lists the contents of /media - to check that the new image file is created.. Change back to /home/yourusername directory.. To check how much free spce is left on the external harddiskk "/dev/sdb".. Shutdown and halt (stop) your computer now.. Advantage: You can backup any kind of data contained on the harddisk, even encrypted data.. Disadvantage: Uses lots of space, and is fairly slow.. 6/2008..

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