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    Archived pages: 148 . Archive date: 2013-05.

  • Title: Facts for Life - Home
    Descriptive info: .. Home.. What is.. Factsfor Life.. ?.. Using.. Timing Births.. SafeMotherhood and Newborn Health.. ChildDevelopment and Early Learning.. Breastfeeding.. Nutrition andGrowth.. Immunization.. Diarrhoea.. Coughs, Coldsand More Serious Illnesses.. Hygiene.. Malaria.. HIV.. ChildProtection.. InjuryPrevention.. Emergencies:Preparedness and Response.. PDF and Word versions.. Resources.. Facts for Life saves lives!.. Each year, around 9 million children die from preventable and treatable illnesses before reaching their fifth birthday.. Many die during their first year of life.. Countless more children live in precarious situations and face diminished futures.. The handbook,.. Facts for Life.. , provides vital messages and information for mothers, fathers, other family members and caregivers and communities to use in changing behaviours and practices that can save and protect the lives of children and help them grow and develop to their full potential.. This version of.. builds on the three previous editions, which have  ...   children grow up in protective environments.. is a trusted resource that is written in easy-to-understand language.. Previous versions were translated into 215 languages.. Users of this fourth edition are encouraged to be innovative in finding ways to extend the reach of the.. messages to help families and communities realize the rights of children and women everywhere.. If you translate all or part of the book, or know of translations into other languages, share them with us and we will post them on this site!.. Share facts for life far and wide to help ensure children's and women's rights!.. Click here to access supplementary resources.. go ahead and delve deeper into the topics!.. Click here to view short video clips.. see how putting FFL messages into practice can help make a difference in the lives of children and their families and communities!..

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  • Title: Facts for Life - What is Facts for Life?
    Descriptive info: Safe Motherhood and Newborn Health.. Child Development and Early Learning.. Nutrition and Growth.. Coughs, Colds and More Serious Illnesses.. Injury Prevention.. Emergencies: Preparedness and Response.. Foreword.. Purpose.. Structure.. Essential Messages.. Guide for Using.. Glossary.. For further information contact.. previous.. next..

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  • Title: Facts for Life - Using Facts for Life
    Descriptive info: Guide for Using.. can increase people's knowledge and change their practices and behaviour to improve and save children's lives.. This can lead to positive changes in social beliefs and norms (what is considered normal by society) concerning the survival, growth, learning, development, protection, care and support of children.. is both a practical source of information for individuals and an essential tool for empowering individuals, young people, families and communities.. Its messages and information can promote dialogue, learning and communication among children, youth, families, communities and social networks.. People from all walks of life can drive social change in favour of children's rights.. Working together can make it possible to find diverse, relevant, interesting and constructive ways of using and communicating.. messages far and wide.. This guide for using.. provides:.. some conceptual thinking on the process of behavioural and social change.. information on using formative research and assessment to measure behaviour change.. research determines 'baseline' behaviours for use in helping to design and plan an intervention or campaign aimed at changing behaviours.. assessment measures behaviour changes against the 'baseline' behaviours during or following implementation of an intervention or campaign.. practical guidance on how to use.. to promote behaviour and social change that favours children's right to survive, grow, learn, develop and achieve their full potential in life.. Changing behaviours.. Knowledge alone is insufficient for behaviour change.. It is often assumed that if people are provided with information, products (such as vaccines or handpumps) and services (such as health or education), they will adopt healthier behaviours.. However, information, products and services are often not enough to ensure adoption of new behaviours.. It is important to go beyond giving people information.. should be used in consultation with children, families, communities and social networks.. Their participation is vital to influencing behavioural and social change in favour of children's rights.. as a tool in communication and development interventions involves:.. listening to the concerns of children, families and communities about the topics in Facts for Life.. communicating the messages and supporting information in Facts for Life in interesting and constructive ways that are relevant to a particular context.. stimulating dialogue among all concerned.. supporting actions with children, families and communities that improve behaviours related to the topics in Facts for Life.. assessing the actions to determine behaviour change and outcomes.. Stages of behaviour change.. As individuals, we go through different stages in changing our behaviour.. These stages include:.. not being aware.. becoming aware.. becoming motivated to try something new.. adopting a new behaviour.. sustaining and 'internalizing' a new behaviour so that it becomes part of our normal everyday practice.. First, we have to become aware that a particular behaviour may not be healthy for us or our children.. We then learn that there are other choices or alternative behaviours.. We decide to try a new behaviour.. If we are satisfied that the new behaviour is beneficial we may repeat it.. Ultimately, we may adopt it.. Then we may advocate or promote it with others, encouraging them to adopt it too.. Learning a new behaviour takes place in this continual cycle of awareness, experimentation and repetition.. For example, a father may be persuaded through talking with the local religious leader to have his children sleep under insecticide-treated mosquito nets.. He then sees that the nets prevent mosquito bites and that his children do not get malaria.. He becomes an advocate for sleeping under insecticide-treated mosquito nets, sharing his experience with friends and urging them to use the nets.. Sometimes people who appear to have adopted a new behaviour eventually reject it and return to their former behaviour.. For example, the father who was promoting use of mosquito nets may start to feel that they are too much trouble, so he and his family members stop using them.. Returning to this old behaviour can harm the health of his family.. Ensuring the adoption of a new behaviour that benefits children and families requires an integrated and sustained communication and development strategy.. This involves using different messages and methods to support the 'change continuum' of adopting the new behaviour by individuals and families.. The new behaviour may gradually be adopted by the whole community so that, for example, everyone is using insecticide-treated mosquito nets.. The Malawi Interfaith AIDS Association has integrated verses and teachings from the.. Holy Bible.. and the.. Holy Quran.. into.. booklets used during sermons in churches and mosques.. is also used by community radio stations and television stations, and in.. Boma Lathu.. , a newsletter in the local language.. The village heads use.. for community reading sessions.. Behaviour change creates a dynamic that may result in social change.. Individuals rarely change all by themselves.. Their behaviour often depends on and is influenced by the views and practices of their families, friends and communities.. Sometimes these are positive, as when everybody washes their hands with soap and water after using the toilet or latrine.. Other times they may be harmful, as when parents have their daughters undergo genital cutting or refuse to have their children vaccinated.. To change social behaviour means changing the everyday views and practices of families and communities.. What parents, other caregivers, children and adolescents decide to do is often influenced by what others are doing around them.. Resistance can be expected when social norms are challenged.. This is because change involves shifting the dynamics of a group on fundamental issues related to gender roles, power relations and many other factors within the family or community.. But acceptance can become contagious when society begins to see the economic and social benefits of adopting a new behaviour.. An example is when families using mosquito nets no longer have to cope with sickness or death caused by malaria.. Their energies can be directed to sustain their children's learning and the family's productivity.. People begin to see and hear about the change, and interest spreads, prompting others to adopt the  ...   act on it to change behaviours if:.. In Senegal,.. messages have been used to promote exclusive breastfeeding, curb the spread of cholera, advocate for the abandonment of female genital cutting and encourage skin-to-skin contact between mothers and newborns (especially for premature babies), in addition to other baby-care practices.. they are encouraged to discuss it among themselves and to ask questions to clarify their understanding.. they understand how they and their families and communities will benefit.. the language is familiar and compatible with the local culture and social norms, avoiding judgemental or prescriptive-sounding 'orders'.. the person presenting it or the source of information (such as radio or television) is well known and trusted.. they hear repeated, simple and consistent messages from different sources.. they are given time to change, especially if the change carries a cost, such as installation of latrines.. Use a mix of communication channels: interpersonal; community, traditional and 'mid' media; and mass media.. Interpersonal: person-to-person.. Most people are not comfortable using new information seen or heard in the mass media without having an opportunity to discuss it with someone they trust.. Person-to-person communication, supplemented by mass and traditional and/or 'mid' media campaigns and ongoing programming activities, are most effective in encouraging people to adopt, sustain and internalize new behaviours.. effectively requires facilitating participant groups, especially the most marginalized, to become engaged in meaningful dialogue.. It is important to reach remote communities, children with disabilities and minority or indigenous children and families.. It is also vital that women and girls participate as fully as men and boys.. To facilitate an interpersonal discussion:.. Use simple examples of problems that are important to the people involved.. Start with what is already known and focus on major concerns.. Avoid technical or scientific language.. Use illustrations to stimulate discussion.. Encourage people to ask questions and express concerns.. Guide the discussion to explore the causes of the problem and possible solutions.. Remember to listen, which is as important to communication as speaking.. The participation of children, families and other community members is key to identifying barriers or unforeseen problems that prevent people from acting on the message.. They can articulate local solutions.. Show respect for people's opinions, knowledge and ability to change.. People learn best in situations that build their confidence, and they take action when they feel understood and respected.. Be a role model for the behaviour you would like to see adopted.. Support people in taking action.. Recognize that they may want to change but may not be able to act alone.. Help them mobilize existing networks or create new ones that will encourage more individuals and families to adopt and sustain new behaviours.. Community, traditional and 'mid' media.. This type of communication refers to materials or communication methods that are in between the person-to-person approach and the mass audience approach.. Some examples include:.. Street theatre: Used to deliver key messages by a small group of actors for groups ranging from a few dozen to hundreds of people.. Cell phone messages: Used to urge parents or other caregivers to take their children for their vaccinations, etc.. Internet: Used for communication and as a source of information.. The internet is expanding rapidly and is particularly familiar to adolescents and young people, from urban areas to remote villages; websites such as YouTube are especially popular.. Posters, leaflets and badges or buttons: Often used to reinforce information communicated through interpersonal contact or social mobilization efforts.. Videos and audio cassettes: Used to effectively broadcast messages through mobile vans and community TV viewing groups.. Poetry, song and puppetry: Especially used to engage children and youth.. Slide sets and flip charts: Often used in community centres and schools.. Mass media.. Mass media (radio, newspapers and television) are excellent tools for reaching large numbers of people to introduce and reinforce new information and promote a particular social change.. Some steps include:.. India's number one television drama series,.. Kyunki Jeena Issi Ka Naam Hai.. , is based on.. Launched in 2008, the series reaches 56 million viewers who are mostly women between 15 and 34 years old.. The show communicates.. messages through engaging stories.. Viewers relate the experiences of the characters to their own lives.. Assessments in some states have revealed that midwives have been so inspired by the show's popular nurse character that they feel more motivated in their work.. messages have also reinforced the midwives' knowledge, for example, regarding prenatal check-ups.. Assist participant groups in identifying their primary mass media channels.. What is the source of their information and news?.. If community radio is as important to them as national radio, find ways to work with local radio networks.. Publicize the same message in various media.. Repetition reinforces behaviour change, strengthens memory and enhances learning.. This helps people retain the message and encourages them to act on it.. Examples of media channels include interviews, news articles, round-table discussions, radio or television dramas, soap operas, puppet shows, comics, jingles or songs, quizzes, contests and call-in shows.. Understand who in the household makes decisions about what to listen to or watch, and make sure the message targets them.. If the messages are aired on radio or television, make sure they are broadcast at a time when families are listening or watching.. Do not rely only on free public service announcements aired during off-peak hours.. Broadcast messages during popular programmes so they reach a wide audience.. Ask popular disc jockeys and television show hosts to discuss the messages on radio call-in programmes or TV shows with live audiences.. Use of mixed communication methods produces the best results.. To achieve behaviour change that favours the rights of all children, it is key to use a mix of communication channels, combining short-term, campaign-style actions with long-term and interactive communication.. Refer to the.. website,.. www.. factsforlifeglobal.. org.. , for further information on communication for development and a collection of supplementary resources related to each of the chapters..

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  • Title: Facts for Life - Timing Births
    Descriptive info: Why it is important to share and act on information.. Too many births, births too close together and births to adolescent girls under 18 and women over 35 endanger the lives of women and adolescents and their infants.. Family planning is one of the most effective ways to improve women's and children's health and survival.. Family planning services provide women and men with information, education and the means to plan when to begin having children, how many to have, how far apart to have them and when to stop.. However, millions of women of childbearing age, including adolescent girls, do not have control over limiting pregnancies or spacing births, nor do they  ...   have them.. With family planning services they are enabled to make informed decisions on pregnancy by taking into account the benefits and risks, including those related to age and level of access to health services.. Ensuring access to family planning services for women and men, and to education for all children would help prevent many maternal and child deaths and disabilities, particularly in countries where marriage occurs early in life.. Together these measures can contribute to women's, adolescent girls' and children's right to survival, health and well-being.. On timing births, see also:.. Why it is important.. All key messages.. Supporting information for key messages:.. 1.. 2.. 3.. 4.. 5.. Resources for this topic..

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  • Title: Facts for Life - Safe Motherhood and Newborn Health
    Descriptive info: Why it is important to share and act on this information.. Every pregnant woman hopes for a healthy baby and an uncomplicated pregnancy.. However, every day, about 1,500 women and adolescent girls die from problems related to pregnancy and childbirth.. Every year, some 10 million women and adolescent girls experience complications during pregnancy, many of which leave them and/or their children with infections and severe disabilities.. Each year, about 3 million babies are stillborn, and 3.. 7 million babies (latest data available, 2004) die very soon after birth or within the first month.. The poor health of the mother, including diseases that were not adequately treated before or during pregnancy, is often a factor contributing to newborn deaths or to babies born too early and/or with low birth weight, which can cause future complications.. The risks of childbearing for the mother and her baby can be greatly reduced if: 1) a woman is healthy and well nourished before becoming pregnant; 2) she has regular maternity care by a trained health worker at least four times during every pregnancy; 3) the birth is assisted by a skilled birth attendant, such as a doctor, nurse or midwife;  ...   the baby during pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding, and caring for themselves and their baby.. Governments have a responsibility to ensure that every woman has access to quality maternity care, including prenatal and post-natal services; a skilled birth attendant to assist at childbirth; special care and referral services in the event serious problems arise; and maternity protection in the workplace.. Most governments have ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.. Some countries have ratified the international agreements on maternity protection, and most have enacted legislation on maternity protection.. These international agreements in defence of women's rights include a legally binding commitment to provide pregnant women and mothers with health services and protection in the workplace.. Many women, including adolescents, have difficulty accessing quality health care due to poverty, distance, lack of information, inadequate services or cultural practices.. Governments and local authorities, with support from non-governmental and community-based organizations, have a responsibility to address these issues to ensure that women receive the quality health care they need and that they and their newborns have a right to receive.. On safe motherhood and newborn health, see also:.. 6.. 7.. 8.. 9.. 10..

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  • Title: Facts for Life - Child Development and Early Learning
    Descriptive info: Child development refers to the changes that occur as a child grows and develops in relation to being physically healthy, mentally alert, emotionally sound, socially competent and ready to learn.. The first five years of a child's life are fundamentally important.. They are the foundation that shapes children's future health, happiness, growth, development and learning achievement at school, in the family and community, and in life in general.. Recent research confirms that the first five years are particularly important for the development of the child's brain, and the first three years are the most critical in shaping the child's brain architecture.. Early experiences provide the base for the brain's organizational development and functioning throughout life.. They have a direct impact on how children develop learning skills as well as social and emotional abilities.. Children learn more quickly during their early years than at any  ...   good health care.. Understanding the stages of child development helps parents know what to expect and how to best support the child as she or he grows and develops.. In many settings, early childhood programmes support parents and their children from infancy through age 8, which includes the important transition from home to school.. All children have the right to be raised in a family and to have access to quality health care, good nutrition, education, play and protection from harm, abuse and discrimination.. Children have the right to grow up in an environment in which they are enabled to reach their full potential in life.. It is the duty of parents, other caregivers and family members, communities, civil society and governments to ensure that these rights are respected, protected and fulfilled.. On child development and early learning, see also:.. How children develop (chart)..

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  • Title: Facts for Life - Breastfeeding
    Descriptive info: Babies who are breastfed are generally healthier and achieve optimal growth and development compared to those who are fed formula milk.. If the vast majority of babies were exclusively fed breastmilk in their first six months of life meaning.. only.. breastmilk and no other liquids or solids, not even water it is estimated that the lives of at least 1.. 2 million children would be saved every year.. If children continue to be breastfed up to two years and beyond, the health and development of millions of children would be greatly improved.. Infants who are not breastfed are at an increased risk of illness that can compromise their growth and raise the risk of death or disability.. Breastfed babies receive protection from illnesses through the mother's  ...   can transmit HIV to her baby through breastfeeding.. Counselling can help her carefully weigh the risks and make an informed decision on which feeding option is best for her baby and most manageable for her.. Almost every mother can breastfeed successfully.. All mothers, particularly those who might lack the confidence to breastfeed, need the encouragement and practical support of the baby's father and their families, friends and relatives.. Health workers, community workers, women's organizations and employers can also provide support.. Everyone has the right to information about the benefits of breastfeeding and the risks of artificial feeding.. Governments have a responsibility to provide this information.. Communities as well as media and other channels of communication can play a key role in promoting breastfeeding.. On breastfeeding, see also:..

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  • Title: Facts for Life - Nutrition and growth
    Descriptive info: Nutrition and growth.. More than one third of all child deaths every year around the world are attributed to malnutrition, specifically undernutrition, which weakens the body's resistance to illness.. If a woman is malnourished during pregnancy or if her child is malnourished during the first two years of life, the child's physical and mental growth and development will be slowed.. This cannot be corrected when the child is older it will affect the child for the rest of his or her life.. Malnutrition develops when the body does not get the proper amount of energy (calories), proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals and other nutrients required to keep the organs and tissues healthy and functioning well.. A child or adult can be malnourished by being undernourished or overnourished.. In most parts of the world malnutrition occurs when people are undernourished.. Primary reasons for undernourishment, especially of children and women, are poverty, lack of food, repeated illnesses, inappropriate feeding practices, lack of care and poor hygiene.. Undernourishment raises the risk of  ...   becoming malnourished.. When children become sick, they lose energy and nutrients quickly, which puts their lives at risk faster than adults.. Overnutrition is when a person is overweight or obese.. It can cause diabetes in childhood and cardiovascular disease and other diseases in adulthood.. Sometimes children eat large quantities of foods that are high in energy but not rich in other necessary nutrients, such as sugary drinks or fried, starchy foods.. In such cases improving the quality of the child's diet is crucial along with increasing his or her level of physical activity.. Children with chronic diseases, such as HIV, are even more susceptible to malnutrition.. Their bodies have a harder time absorbing vitamins, iron and other nutrients.. Children with disabilities may need extra attention to make sure they get the nutrition they need.. All girls and boys have the right to a caring and protective environment, with mothers, fathers or other caregivers making sure they are well nourished with a healthy diet.. On nutrition and growth, see also:..

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  • Title: Facts for Life - Immunization
    Descriptive info: Each year, over 1.. 4 million children die from diseases that are preventable with readily available vaccines.. These diseases include measles, meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib), diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (whooping cough), yellow fever, polio and hepatitis B.. New vaccines against other illnesses, such as pneumonia and diarrhoea caused by rotavirus, have been developed and are now more widely used.. Children who are immunized are protected from these dangerous diseases, which can often lead to disability or death.. All children have the right to this protection.. Every girl and boy needs to be fully immunized.. Early protection is critical.. The immunizations in the  ...   to protect themselves as well as their newborns.. Although there has been progress in the past years in immunizing children, in 2008 nearly 24 million children almost 20% of children born each year did not get the routine immunizations scheduled for the first year of life.. Parents or other caregivers need to know why immunization is important, the recommended immunization schedule, and where their children can be immunized.. Parents or other caregivers need to know that it is safe to immunize a child who has a minor illness or a disability or is suffering from malnutrition.. As of 2002 (latest data available).. On immunization, see also:..

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  • Title: Facts for Life - Diarrhoea
    Descriptive info: Diarrhoea is the second most common cause of death in young children, after pneumonia.. About 4 billion cases of diarrhoea are estimated to occur every year among children under 5.. It kills more than 1.. 5 million children under 5 years of age every year, representing 17 per cent of all deaths in children under 5.. Children are more likely than adults to die from diarrhoea because they become dehydrated and malnourished more quickly.. Diarrhoea is caused by germs that are swallowed, especially germs from faeces.. This happens most often where there is unsafe disposal of faeces, poor hygiene practices, lack of clean drinking water, or  ...   time are less likely to get diarrhoea.. Children with diarrhoea should be given lots of fluids and foods along with a special solution called oral rehydration salts (ORS) and zinc to help reduce the severity of the illness.. Families and communities, with support from governments and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), can do much to raise awareness of 1) what causes diarrhoea, 2) why it is important to treat diarrhoea as soon as it starts, and 3) how to prevent the conditions that cause it.. When everyone works together to reduce diarrhoea, children's right to life, survival, health and development can be better assured.. On diarrhoea, see also:..

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  • Title: Facts for Life - Coughs, colds and more serious illnesses
    Descriptive info: Coughs, colds and more serious illnesses.. Coughs, colds, sore throats and runny noses are common in the lives of children.. Usually they are no cause for alarm.. In some cases, however, coughs are danger signs of more serious illnesses, such as pneumonia or tuberculosis.. Pneumonia is the world's leading cause of death in girls and boys under age 5, closely followed by diarrhoea..  ...   children than AIDS, malaria and measles combined.. One out of every five deaths of children under age 5 is caused by this respiratory infection.. All girls and boys have the right to quality health care to make sure that respiratory infections and other illnesses are accurately diagnosed and treated before it is too late.. On coughs, colds and more serious illnesses, see also:..

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    Archived pages: 148