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    Archived pages: 203 . Archive date: 2013-12.

  • Title: In new and old states, where will the poor live? : Centre for North East Studies and Policy Research (C-NES)
    Descriptive info: In new and old states, where will the poor live?.. | August 14, 2013 |.. In the fresh crisis that is engulfing Assam and other parts of.. North-east and Eastern India following the Telengana announcement,.. much angry rhetoric is being spewed.. There is also a lot of defensive.. posturing by groups opposed to the creation of new states, whether in.. Assam, West Bengal or elsewhere.. The Karbi Anglong outburst caught.. everyone in the State by surprise, leading to tragic deaths and.. violence.. There are bandhs, counter-bandhs and threats of strikes.. that will be unending.. To many of us, it appears that we are either.. caught in a time warp or that we are heading back in time when these.. very issues, of demands for statehood or great space, captured both.. political and media headlines, disrupted life and impacted the fabric.. of society.. I am not going to talk about the rightness or otherwise of the demands.. being made, for example, to carve up the existing state of Assam into.. several portions.. These are not new demands and they have always been.. simmering below the surface; all they require is a handy excuse to.. explode onto the public arena.. The Centre’s announcement of a.. Telengana state did that as is the general knowledge across the.. country that elections to the Lok Sabha are not far away – they could.. be held as early as November or so or as scheduled in May 2014.. The Centre has failed the people of this region and other parts of the.. country where demands for separate states have been made: it should.. have held a series of dialogues with them, taking their issues into.. consideration, and trying to go the extra mile.. Would it have hurt if.. the Telengana business had been put off by another six months while.. trying to accommodate similar issues in other states? This failure is.. costing both the Centre and the States dear, as it will the Congress.. Party.. But, in relation to Assam, there is one point which requires to be.. stressed: one does not know of any other case but that of Assam where.. a group demanding the virtual vivisection of the state continues in.. government and enjoys the privileges of office while supporting.. agitation in favour of division! The Chief Minister himself has not.. commented on this contradiction – but isn’t it obvious that there is.. such a major contradiction: that you continue in government despite.. doing everything or at least saying everything, including a little.. demonstration by two MPs outside the Lok Sabha in Delhi, that.. undercuts the very basis of a coalition government.. That foundation is.. the quality of working in consonance with the other party or parties,.. of consensual politics and policies.. If those politicians wanting a.. separate state can convince their colleagues in the Congress Party.. that this is a good idea for the State and the country, then of course.. they should continue in the government.. Otherwise, they lose the moral authority (most Indians would question.. the value of such a thing anyway) to hold positions in the Council of.. Ministers while undercutting the foundation of that very government of.. which they are part.. Which part of this is difficult to comprehend?.. I.. e.. either you are with the government or you are against it.. So the.. honorable thing to do would be to leave.. But that’s not something.. which those wanting a division appear to be prepared to do or those.. wanting a change in the Congress Party leadership.. There are a whole range of questions which arise with demands for new.. states: the most often  ...   be a source of comfort.. Ours is a.. small state, barely 2.. 6 percent of the total population of this.. mammoth, crowded nation.. If in a small state, made smaller by.. separations which led to smaller states being carved out of it with.. the creation of Nagaland in 1963 and Meghalaya in 1970 – our HDI rank.. is 16 out of 23 (2007-08 figures) and our Gender Empowerment Measure.. (GEM), which assesses the access of women to basic rights and.. services, is 28 out of 35.. A basic fact linking incomes to agitations or rather the lack of.. incomes to periods of protests is that ordinary people can’t work.. during such times; a daily labourer without work means no money at the.. end of the day and where would he/she buy from if the shops are.. closed.. How long can a family – even if one took the highly.. controversial and disputed Tendulkar method of calculating the poverty.. line – buy food stocks in advance to sustain it through long days of.. closure and lack of work? What are the psychological effects of these.. prolonged agitations on those who bear the brunt of it – the poor and.. the vulnerable? How can they get their sick to hospitals if transport.. doesn’t move, how do they sell their labour or their produce if.. businesses are shut and markets are closed? What does a 1,000-hour.. bandh (translated into days, it’s about 42 days) mean for a small.. family on the edge of poverty and those below that level? How do.. they, simply put, survive?.. I am sure that those who call bandhs think of this.. It must be a major.. concern for them for their families, friends and others known to them.. may be affected by this very dynamic.. The political issue is a.. separate one: I am not pronouncing here on the correctness or.. otherwise of the new calls over old demands.. What I am concerned.. about is the ensuring and anchoring of the essential human rights of.. the poor and the ordinary, the vulnerable and the weak, in whose name.. – the name of the janata – all agitations and confrontations develop.. How can these be assured, by those calling for the battles and by.. those in power?.. Clearly, those demanding their rights through protests are convinced.. of their cause.. So are those opposed to them.. Indeed, peaceful.. demonstrations are an inspired democratic right.. But what about those.. don’t figure in the story, who are caught in between, the ‘silent’.. ones? Spare a thought for them and consider how their condition can be.. improved.. For they will continue to inhabit both the old states and.. the new, the smaller states and the large, and it is their lives which.. need to be uplifted.. We cannot forget that large parts of the North-east, despite all the.. tom-tomming of growth and achievements by its different states, are at.. the economic and social levels of LDCs (Least Developed Countries).. like Cambodia, Myanmar and Laos.. There is a long way to go.. That is.. why the constant of political dialogue must replace confrontation and.. conflict.. By Sanjoy Hazarika / By the Brahmaputra.. Like this:.. Like.. Loading.. Tags:.. Sanjoy Hazarika.. Category.. :.. If you enjoyed this article, subscribe to receive more just like it.. Subscribe via RSS Feed.. Leave a Reply.. Click here to cancel reply.. Name.. ( required ).. Email.. ( required; will not be published ).. Website.. If you want a picture to show with your comment, go get a.. Gravatar.. Notify me of follow-up comments by email.. Notify me of new posts by email.. %d.. bloggers like this:..

    Original link path: /2220/in-new-and-old-states-where-will-the-poor-live
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  • Title: ‘D’ Category and Lost Years : Centre for North East Studies and Policy Research (C-NES)
    Descriptive info: D Category and Lost Years.. | July 25, 2013 |.. The day that the ‘foreigners’ issue caused turmoil in the Assam Assembly and made headlines, once again – as it has for over 30 years, without much being resolved one way or the other – a few revealing statistics also were reported.. I reflect on them here because they raise troubling issues.. These are questions and concerns not about existing facts but missing data.. We are always emotionally charged, and rightly so, and deeply exercised about the ‘illegal migration’ issue, even though facts and figures show that the real numbers are less than has been proclaimed from the rooftops.. That there has been substantial illegal migration over several decades is not in dispute.. In question is the declaration – unsubstantiated for the main, but for emotional declarations, sweeping rhetoric and passionate columns by parties, organizations and individuals– that the influx is continuing at an extensive and alarming pace.. While migration may indeed be taking place, the issue is about the numbers as much as anything else and the reality that the issue is as far from a solution as it was some years back.. One does not wish to go into the details of the rhetoric.. What is important is also to look at the facts, in this case, as the State Government has placed in a press conference while the State Assembly session was going on.. The ’D’ or Doubtful category of voters was the issue that State Forest Minister Rockybul Hussain, a close aide to the Chief Minister and a spokesman for the government, addressed.. According to news reports, this is what Mr.. Hussain had to state on 15 July 2013: that 91,159 out of a total of 2,31,657 cases of ‘Doubtful’ Voters i.. possibly foreign nationals had been ‘disposed’ of through due process.. Of the 91,159, only 7,152 were identified as ‘illegal foreigners’ while 41,190 were found to be Indian citizens.. I find this very puzzling.. The figures don’t add up or maybe the reporters did not get the full picture.. If 91,159 cases had been resolved, and of this only 7,152 were foreigners and 41,190 were Indians, then what were the others? There are 42,997 more persons who have not been categorized, at least not in the reports which I have seen.. So where does it place them – for surely they cannot be denizens of another planet? Are they still ‘D’ people and hence in suspended animation, without the rights of a citizen? But if the issue has been resolved in their case, why doesn’t the government categorically say what their status is?.. In the Assembly, Mr.. Hussain said that 1,18,472 persons had been served D notices between January 2003 and January 2013.. But he did not say or at least was not quoted as saying or clarifying over what period did the 2,31,657 cases come from? Surely, they would go back further in time.. So, as usual in the issue of ‘illegal migration’ and ‘foreigners’, the  ...   government has carried out this responsibility better than us.. The Election Commission classifies ‘D’ voters and we know majority of them turn out to be genuine Indian citizens.. Their classification has been wrongly done and I have told this to chief election commissioner (SY Quraishi) at a meeting here.. But the EC is an autonomous body and is not bound to listen to us.. He was referring to the process which had begun over a decade back and which, after an intensive house to house survey, turned up as many as 370,000 persons as people of Doubtful Identity if they could not produce documents to back up their claim of Indian citizenship.. After being barred from voting, the High Court sent off a large number to detention camps.. Another revision, showed that many of those who were categorized were missing and the figure was revised to 181,619.. The issue became extremely sensitive after two rickshaw pullers, both Bengali speaking Hindus and brothers, were declared to be Bangladeshis though they had been voting regularly and pushed into Bangladesh by the Border Security Force.. Such cases raise issues that are not even addressed in all the rhetoric that flows about in this political space.. These are uncomfortable questions but they need to be faced.. For instance, what happens in and to the lives of those who have been characterized as ‘foreigners’ and ‘illegal migrants’ but have been set free of that stigma by courts and tribunals? How do they recoup, refigure and reshape their lives and that of their families? What is the role of Government and other processes to help in that process?.. There are two sub- issues which need to be considered by the government and political parties, by other communities in Assam with regard to this larger question:.. The first is whether such groups and individuals, people who have suffered physical and mental harm and harassment, loss of income and livelihoods, of jobs and dignity, are entitled to some form of compensation for the years lost and the time and energy dissipated.. The second is whether, as in other parts of the North-east, many of these could be characterized as victims of discrimination and need the help of trained counselors to come out of conditions of stress.. All citizens have equal rights to health care that can help them recover from trauma.. In the cases under discussion here, they may not be directly suffering from Post Trauma Stress Syndrome (PTSS) induced by victimization at the hands of security forces as well as members of militant/armed groups as seen elsewhere among different communities and several states of the NER.. After all, it is an established clinical finding that those who have suffered extensively in conflict zones in the world need psychiatric care and counseling by caregivers.. But discrimination and a sense of alienation can also be contributory factors to PTSS.. After all, no one can bring the lost years back.. By the Brahmaputra.. By Sanjoy Hazarika.. http://www.. assamtribune.. com/.. scripts/showpage.. asp?id=.. jul2413,6,435,129,993,837..

    Original link path: /2218/d-category-and-lost-years
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  • Title: ‘Brahmaputra’ film screened in Europe : Centre for North East Studies and Policy Research (C-NES)
    Descriptive info: Brahmaputra film screened in Europe.. | July 21, 2013 |.. A documentary film, Where there are no roads , on the unique boat clinics that ply on the Brahmaputra in Assam, has been screened to international audiences of scholars, media, writers, area specialists, students and professionals in Vienna and London.. The latest screening was held at the Indian government s main cultural venue, the Nehru Centre, in London Wednesday to an attentive audience which interacted extensively with film maker Sanjoy Hazarika, who introduced the film and responded to questions afterwards, especially on how Assam, which has India s worst Maternal Mortality Ratio, is improving dramatically these past years.. The film portrays the difficulties of taking healthcare through specialized boats on the Brahmaputra, an initiative of the Centre for Northeast Studies and Policy Research, and how a simple idea and initiative today reaches nearly a  ...   Mission of the state government, which funds the campaign.. It shows how in partnership with the principal stakeholder, commitment and courage, sustained health care can become a reality for lakhs of ordinary people, said Hazarika.. In Vienna, the film was one of the main events at the inaugural programme July 4 of an international three-day conference of over 75 scholars from across Europe, the United States and India who are working on issues relating to ethnography, anthropology, politics and sociology in the region.. Their subjects ranged from lifestyle changes among hill groups in the North-East Region to the crisis of conflict in the Bodo tribal areas, the challenges posed by repressive laws that give special powers to the armed forces as well as displacement and flooding and its impact on ordinary people in the flood plains of the mighty Brahmaputra river.. business-standard.. com/article/news-ians/brahmaputra-film-screened-in-europe-113071100101_1.. html..

    Original link path: /2212/brahmaputra-film-screened-in-europe
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  • Title: London screeninig : Centre for North East Studies and Policy Research (C-NES)
    Descriptive info: London screeninig.. | July 2, 2013 |.. After a wonderful response at Delhi, Guwahati, Shillong, Jorhat and Dibrugarh Where There Are No Roads C-NES documentary on the Boat Clinics to be screened at London s Nehru Centre at 11:30 am on 10th July.. Producer, Script writer and Managing Trustee, C-NES Sanjoy Hazarika will be present..

    Original link path: /2155/london-screeninig
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  • Title: The Outsider Syndrome: ‘Us’ and ‘Them’ : Centre for North East Studies and Policy Research (C-NES)
    Descriptive info: The Outsider Syndrome: ‘Us’ and ‘Them’.. | June 28, 2013 |.. To say that the news from Meghalaya’s Garo Hills is disturbing is to make an understatement.. It reminds one of the bad, dark days in Assam, Manipur, Jammu and Kashmir, in the Punjab: ordinary workers lined up and shot; others attacked in the dark of night (in a sudden assault by a mob, you can’t identify the assailants).. The trigger was the alleged rape – subsequently described as a molestation of a mentally challenged girl by non-tribals in Tura.. That set off a set of rioting and violence in which at least one person was killed, dozens injured while some 4,000 fled.. A curfew was clamped on Tura, the second largest town of Meghalaya, after Shillong and the bastion of three redoubtable Sangmas, (the late) Capt.. Williamson (arguably the founder of Meghalaya and its first Chief Minister), Purno A (former Speaker of the Lok Sabha and one-time Chief Minister) and Dr.. Mukul , the current Chief Minister.. To make matters worse, most of the victims appear to be members of the ‘minority’ community.. With the departure of thousands of non-tribals from Tura, the town’s markets have all but shut, the supply of dry fish, a Garo staple, has vanished, vegetable prices have sky-rocketed (onions selling at Rs.. 80/ per kilo, I am told) and construction workers who build the houses, shops and roads as well as domestic workers too have left.. Over the past years, extortion by armed groups has become extensive.. A complex but functional society, a quiet land where people are calm, gracious and hospitable, where they have for long lived and worked together has been disrupted, again.. It will take weeks, perhaps months, for the situation to limp back to a real peace and a real normalcy and for those who have fled to return.. Some of those who have been wounded may not come back; they may be too frightened by their experience.. Those who are to blame for the assault on the girl must be dealt with the full force of the law.. But the moment that people take the law into their own hands, fuelling ethnic and religious tensions, the situation goes out of control.. Obviously, these problems have been building up for some time.. I recalled the report of an effort to molest a handicapped girl over a month ago in Tura.. This followed the series of horrific rape incidents, one when over a dozen youths (many of them juvenile) raped a school girl elsewhere in the Garo Hills; the case is in the courts.. Then the alleged molestation and rape of two sisters by Nurul Islam, a police inspector, in Ampati town; the incidents took place first in the police station and at their home, according to officials.. Islam apparently escaped or was allowed to flee by his subordinates when he was taken to Tura after crowds in Ampati bayed for his blood.. But now, as suspicion, anger and mistrust grows – let us remember that ill-will does not grow on one side alone.. The other side also exists; those from the ‘other’ have feelings, families, friends.. They would  ...   give us cause to ponder on a few issues which affect us regularly.. Residents of at least two Rengma villages have moved to a relief camp at Chokihola near the Golaghat border.. But what is striking about this situation is that the KPLT has denied issuing any such threat.. So, did people leave out of fear or because a rumour had been fuelled? In addition, the Morung Express of Dimapur writes that the area is so isolated and the people so poor that “they have no mobile phone coverage and no electricity and the 25-kilometer or so of road to Tseguchangri from the nearest police outpost – Chokihola police station – takes more than three hours by car.. It is worth asking our MLAs and state Ministers from that district why these conditions exist and have been tolerated for so long? We should remember that the longer such inequity persists, the greater and swifter the lurch towards radicalization; the Maoists will find such territory readymade for their lethal brew.. There’s no point blaming them or others if conditions worsen; they would have only taken advantage of conditions manufactured for them by the failure of government, governance and political institutions.. What have the elected representatives and the government officials done about it? What are the plans to improve the situation? Is there a deadline? If so, what is it? What has especially the Karbi Anglong Autonomous District Council, which has been in place for decades, done, especially with the extensive Central funds it receives?.. We live in a time when not a day passes without charges being hurled about by one political party or organization against other groups, be they of a different ethnic hue or ideology, Bangladeshis, illegal immigrants and aliens.. And just when one situation seems to improve in our complex land, there’s a jolt and a new set of issues, conflicts and problems emerge from another area.. These are the indicators of fragile communities, societies and states, when despite the overwhelming presence of force on the side of the Government, it is unable or unknowledgeable to weave in the networks, connections and conversations that make it possible to nip the problems in the bud.. The trouble in the Garo hills is not a series of isolated incidents; they are a reflection of a larger problem facing the North-east and the core of governability, not just governance – these range from the patronage of political biggies to various groups, including the armed factions, of the powerful coal mafia that fuels exploitation of coal, forests and other natural resources and has politicians and officials on their sides.. Settlements with armed groups may be a way forward.. But we have to move beyond the politics of manufactured consent for these represent short-term goals.. They do not resolve the complex problems of ethnicity and land alienation, of identity, boundaries and borders.. For these, we have to delve deeper, involving community leaders, researchers and unprejudiced minds, developing public dialogues and discussions, helping one side to understand and respect the other.. Not by threatening with a mailed fist or by bowing on bent knee.. By the Brahmaputra By Sanjoy Hazarika.. com/scripts/showpage.. asp?id=jun2613,6,435,129,981,873..

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  • Title: Asha by boat: the last mile over water : Centre for North East Studies and Policy Research (C-NES)
    Descriptive info: Asha by boat: the last mile over water.. “If I don’t get a hundred it would be a bad day.. ” said Muniran Bibi.. She sounded like an ambitious cricket player.. “The boat clinic is our only chance of getting health care here on the island.. ” she insisted.. “If not many people come, a big chance would be wasted for them.. ” Her eyes were bright with anticipation.. I had just arrived at the school building on an island in the Brahmaputra River in Kamrup District, Assam, India.. The young team from the Kamrup Boat Clinic, a doctor, a pharmacist, lab technician, two nurses and a registration worker had raced ahead carrying their supplies on a bicycle through the fields.. I was maybe three minutes after them.. When I got there they had already talked to Muniran, the local Asha worker, and set up in their corners in the school’s class room.. People started lining up at the rickety table under the porch that was used for registration.. Karim Ali, twelve years old, was one of the first ones.. He got deworming pills and vitamin B supplement.. Most of the patients were women, many with their children, and many others pregnant.. They came for  ...   of these boat clinics with funding from the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM).. The boat clinic was the brain child of Sanjoy Hazarika, C-NES’s managing trustee and a writer, journalist and documentary maker.. The first boat clinic started in 2005 with funding from the World Bank Development Marketplace.. When NRHM deployed in Assam, they realized that without the boat clinics they would never reach the 3 million people in Assam who live on islands in the mighty river.. So they decided to fund C-NES to reach them.. Today, the boat clinics reach more than a million people who would otherwise never get care.. With more funding for boats, they could do more….. The boat clinics deliver the last mile in a Government of India funding program, a mile over water in PPP mode.. Like Operation Asha, another Development Marketplace “last mile” winner, the boat clinics excel through focus, dedication and relentless efficiency.. I love what they do!.. When we left, Muniran looked happy.. She was well over a hundred already and not out.. The team would stay the whole day to take the boat back only just before dark.. Another island would await them the next day, like every week day…….. SOURCE:.. http://blogs.. worldbank.. org/endpovertyinsouthasia/endpovertyinsouthasia/asha-boat-last-mile-over-water..

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  • Title: Centre for North East Studies and Policy Research (C-NES)
    Descriptive info: Transporting HOPE.. June 22, 2013 |.. “Where There Are No Roads” is as much a statement on the might of the Brahmaputra as on the promise held out by a boat clinic project that delivers healthcare to a million people living by the river Fresh thinking has often delivered.. Where There are No Roads, a 48-minute documentary screened at the India [ ].. Villages swallowed as river erosion accelerates in Bangladesh.. Warming temperatures and dam construction in the Himalayas are worsening river erosion downstream in Bangladesh, displacing entire villages.. On Assam s River Islands, Family Planning Clashes against Religious Tradition.. MAZERCHAR CHALAKURA, Assam — On the banks of the Brahmaputra River, off the coast of Dhubri town in the northeastern state of Assam, lie a few hundred villages that seem stuck in time, difficult to reach from the mainland and undeveloped for decades.. These “char,” the name given to the more than 2,000 riverbank villages [ ].. Uttarakhand floods a “man-made disaster”.. Experts argue rampant development and poor disaster planning has exacerbated flood damage, as a massive rescue operation is under way to reach survivors.. June 12, 2013 |.. First NE Green Journalism award given.. June 8, 2013 |.. Promising journalist Ratnadeep Choudhury who is working for Tehelka bagged the first ever Northeast Green Journalism  ...   President of India in terms of the [ ].. CM dedicates floating hospital.. May 27, 2013 |.. Education can play a pivotal role in making people health-conscious, said Chief Minister Tarun Gogoi while dedicating an underconstruction floating hospital to the people at Pandu in the city today.. The floating hospital is being built by the Centre for North East Studies and Policy Research (C-NES) with the financial support from the North Eastern [ ].. Premiere of documentary on Boat Clincis of the Brahmaputra.. May 12, 2013 |.. May 14, New Delhi premiere of film on the Boat Clinics of the Brahmaputra, May 24 in Guwahati.. Intern Reports.. April 25, 2013 |.. Summer Internship Program 2008- UNICEF India Internship Report- Dr Sheila Longkumar,Tata Institute of Social Sciences(TISS), Mumbai, 2010 Health Logistics : A Report by TISS Intern Sukhreet Bajwa in March 2012 Through American Eyes: The C-NES Boat Clinics.. C-NES Newsletter (January March 2013).. April 10, 2013 |.. By the Brahmaputra (Vol: 21) (For the quarter January – March 2013) Editorial A Messy Democracy: Burma’s challenges The unraveling of ethnic strife in neighbouring Myuanmar or Burma as some of us would prefer to call it but especially the sharp escalation of anti-Muslim violence, first, against the Rohingyas or Muslims of the Arakan [ ].. Previous Page..

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  • Title: Aims and Objectives : Centre for North East Studies and Policy Research (C-NES)
    Descriptive info: Using a strategy of local-level and regional studies, the Centre aims to impact policies and perceptions at all levels to help build a more equitable society.. C-NES is involved in programmes in the following areas:.. Health, education and environment.. Governance.. Livelihood generation.. Conflict.. Participatory planning.. Gender sensitization and status of women.. Infrastructure and transport.. Studies of migration, internal displacement and refugee flow.. Reviews of social projects and policies through local team..  ...   their own unique answers to their problems instead of depending on others.. But this cannot happen in isolation.. The states of the North East need to look to each other and to their neighbors in Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Tibet and Nepal for they must grow together.. The markets, skills, natural resources and other advantages need to knit together if the region, one of the poorest in the world, is to progress..

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  • Title: Arunachal Pradesh : Centre for North East Studies and Policy Research (C-NES)
    Descriptive info: Arunachal Pradesh.. Arunachal Pradesh, the 24th state of the Indian Union attained statehood on February 20, 1987.. It lies to the north of Assam covering an area of 83,743 sq km with Itanagar as its capital.. Comprising 26 major tribes, Arunachal Pradesh has a population of 8,58,392 according to the 1991 census.. The hills of Arunachal, the largest of the seven Northeast states, are the first to greet each dawn in the country.. Earlier as a Union Territory, it was known as the North Eastern Frontier Agency (NEFA).. Arunachal Pradesh was christened so in 1972.. The state has undergone several political changes and is of considerable geo-political importance.. It shares boundaries with Myanmar on the east, Bhutan on the west, China on the north and Assam on its south.. This ancient land finds mention in the Kalika Purana, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana.. The scriptures say that it was here that Parasuram washed away his sins, where Vyas meditated, Bhismaka founded his kingdom, Lord Krishna married his consort Rukmini, and King Balinarayan enlisted men for his army.. The sixth Dalai Lama of Tibet was born in Arunachal Pradesh and the 13th the present Dalai Lama- fled to India through here in 1959.. Forming part of the eastern Himalayan range, the state s climate varies from sub-tropical in the south to alpine in the north.. Its luxuriant rainforests cover more than 60 per cent of the state with turbulent streams and rivers, deep gorges and lofty mountains.. The state boasts of hundreds of species of rare orchids, besides a bewildering variety of avian and faunal wealth.. The altitude of its hills and mountain ranges vary from 2,740 metres to 6,400 metres.. The major rivers of the state are Tirap, Lohit, Siang, Subansiri and Kameng.. The Siang merges with the Lohit and Dibang to form the majestic Brahmaputra in Assam.. History and people.. The state?s inhabitants belong to the Mongolian and Tibeto-Burman tribes.. Most tribal communities in the state are ethnically similar, drawing lineage from the original common stock.. But their geographical isolation has brought among them certain distinct characteristics in language, dress and customs.. Some of their dances incorporate steps from the martial arts of the Adi, Wancho and Nocte tribes.. The people may be divided into three cultural groups on the basis of their socio-religious affinities.. The Monpas and Sherdukpens of Tawang and West Kameng districts follow the Lamaistic tradition of Mahayana Buddhism.. The villages of these communities have richly decorated Buddhist temples, locally known as gompas.. Though by and large agriculturists practising terrace cultivation, many of these people are also pastoral and breed herds of yak and mountain sheep.. Culturally similar to them are Membas and Khambas, who live in the high mountains along the northern border.. The Khamptis and Singphos inhabiting the eastern part of the state are Buddhists of the Hinayana sect.. They migrated from Myanmar at the end of the 18th century.. The second  ...   their religion revolves around the worship of vi (spirits) and orum (ghosts).. Traditional village institutions like the youth dormitories or morungs and village councils (kebangs) have considerably declined, though girls? dormitories can still be found in some villages.. Art and culture.. The people of Arunachal Pradesh have a tradition of artistic craftsmanship.. These skills are visible in a variety of crafts such as weaving, painting, pottery, blacksmithy, basket-weaving and wood carving.. Monpas are known for their artistry in weaving carpets and making painted wooden vessels.. Beautiful rugs are also woven in the Adi area.. Vivid colours and exquisite designs/patterns are hallmarks of their weaving.. Apatanis, Hill Miris and Adis make attractive articles out of cane and bamboo.. The Wanchos are famous for their wood and bamboo carved figurines.. They also make intricate necklaces from colourful beads.. Some important festivals in Arunachal Pradesh include the Mopin and Solung of the Adis, Lossar of the Monpas and Sherdukpens, Boori-boot of the Hill Miris, Dree of the Apatanis, Si-donyi of the Tagins, Nyokum of the Nishis, Reh of the Idu Mishmis and Sangker of the Khamptis.. Economy.. Efforts to usher in agricultural productivity have been initiated, with 48 state plan schemes, 20 central sector schemes and seven centrally-sponsored ones.. Besides the SC/ST farmers? scheme to popularise mechanised cultivation, special benefits are provided to marginal farmers.. The main thrust is on rice cultivation, which is the staple diet, besides cash crops such as pulse, oilseeds and horticultural crops like apples, pineapples and oranges.. With a 14,000 kilometre road network, the state can also boast of an installed power capacity of over 50,000 kilowatts with numerous mini-hydro electric projects.. Besides implementation of rural employment schemes, socio-economic uplift plans like afforestation and regeneration, forest protection and development, scientific harnessing of forest produce, Apna Van and people?s nursery schemes are also under way.. Though banking and marketing have made much headway, there is still much left to be done.. Literacy has crossed the 54 per cent mark and the hardworking and industrious Arunachalis have made significant strides in recent years.. Tourism.. Nature has bestowed Arunachal Pradesh with breathtaking scenic beauty.. Adventure sport enthusiasts can take their pick in angling, boating, rafting, trekking or hiking.. The 350-year-old Tawang Monastery, Tipi Orchidarium, Parasuram Kund, Namdapha Tiger Reserve, the archaeological ruins of Malinithan, the Akash Ganga waterfalls, besides terraced tea gardens are places to visit.. Ziro, Bomdila, Bhalukpong, Along, Pasighat, Tezu, Miao and Roing too offer idyllic surroundings.. Much still needs to be done to develop the area for ecotourism and help it retain its traditions.. Travel.. Entry formalities require Inner Line Permits (ILP) to be acquired from the Resident Commissioner or any Liaison Officer under the Government of Arunachal Pradesh in New Delhi and the other cities like Kolkata, Guwahati, Jorhat and Dibrugarh.. Visitors should contact the state Department of Tourism or the district administration concerned for reservations in guest houses, hotels, circuit houses and dak bungalows..

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  • Title: Assam : Centre for North East Studies and Policy Research (C-NES)
    Descriptive info: Assam.. A luxuriant green stillness, diverse ecosystems, a range of communities living along the mighty Brahmaputra these are the first impressions of a visitor to Assam.. The state covers an area of 78,438 q km and has a population of 22,294,562 (1991 census).. Dispur is the capital.. The word Assam is derived from the Sanskrit word Asama, meaning peerless.. Some say that it comes from the word Ahom, the Thai rulers who controlled Assam s destiny for 600 years.. Indeed this state of the Red River and the Blue Hills is exquisite in its natural beauty, the wealth of its cultural diversity and traditions.. The Brahmaputra which bisects the state sweeps along 724 km before turning south into Bangladesh.. Roughly, a fourth of the state s area comprises hills and the rest is verdant alluvial plains.. The Arunachal hills are on its northern boundary, Nagaland and Manipur touch the eastern flank.. The Mizo Hills rise from its southern extreme.. Bangladesh lies to its west, sharing the western border with Meghalaya and Tripura.. On the southern extreme, the Barak Valley is marked by swampy flats, unusually diversified by low hills.. Assam is synonymous with fine, strong tea and about 290,000 hectares of land are under tea.. It is home to India s greater one-horned rhonoceros and the graceful Gangetic dolphin.. Assam is also known as the land of Srimanta Sankardeva, the renowned 15th century Vaishnavite reformer and saint.. Monks of the Vaishnavite order lived in the satras or monasteries that Sankardeva and his disciples founded.. These centres of culture and learning are still vibrant today and this unique way of life is preserved in places like Majuli, one of the several large islands on the river.. In fact, at 840 sq km it is the world s largest riverine island.. The largest city of the Northeast and the gateway to the region is Guwahati, a fastgrowing, crowded metropolis on the banks of the Brahmaputra.. The advent of the Tai-Ahoms from Burma into Assam in 1228 was one of the significant turning points in its history.. The following 600 years were eventful for Assam.. The long-drawn conflict between the Mughals and the Ahoms finally culminated in the 1669 with the legendary battle of Saraighat near Guwahati, which gave the Ahoms a stunning victory and the Ahom general, Lachit Borphukan, legendary fame among his people.. Later, the British established their suzerainty over the Brahmaputra Valley under the Treaty of Yandaboo between the British and the Burmese in 1826.. The latter surrendered all claims on Assam.. Gradually, after a series of battles and punitive expeditions colonial administration was extended to different hill areas of the Northeast.. Assamese society is distinguished by its ethnic diversity.. Its people have their origins in the Tibeto-Burman anthropological groups and also other groups including the Aryans.. The Bodos, Mishings, Kacharis, Morans, Sooteas, Karbis, Tiwas and other tribes living in the state are part of this tradition.. These groups penetrated Assam at different periods during pre-historic times, while the Ahoms arrived in the 13th century.. Besides the earlier groups, the Ahoms contributed significantly towards the growth of Assamese culture.. The only hill districts are the North Cachar Hills and Karbi Anglong.. North Cachar Hills district is inhabited by the Dimasas, the only Bodo-speaking people living away from the Brahmaputra plains.. Once this place was home to tantrism as borne out by the Sakti temples like Kamakhya at Guwahati and the temple near Kundilghat..  ...   been a decline in the human living index and in overall social, financial and industrial areas.. The United Liberation Front of Asom (ULFA) and the National Democratic Front of Boroland (NDFB) are the major militant groups.. operating in the state.. Further, despite the six-year-long agitation by the All Assam Students? Union (AASU) (1979-1985) over the illegal foreign nationals issue little tangible success has been achieved.. The attitude of the authorities in tackling the illegal influx continues to create fear that the local people will eventually be reduced to a minority, thus leading to a sense of widespread insecurity.. Deforestation, floods, unemployment, border problem, lack of industrialisation, rampant corruption and lack of adequate infrastructure are problem areas.. Frustration bred of unemployment, poor governance and failure by governments at the Centre to understand the heart of the issue has led to disillusionment.. The inflexibility of the militants has aggravated the problem.. There are accounts of human rights violations by security forces and militants.. Annual ravages by floods have also hurt the state?s development.. Roads, bridges, standing crops and public utility facilities worth hundreds of crores are washed away with alarming regularity.. Misuse of Central funds and communication bottlenecks have added to the region?s woes.. On the brighter side, Assam?s tea production has been able to cross the 450 million kg per annum mark and capture a sizeable chunk of the export market.. This is one of India?s largest foreign exchange earners, of which Assam contributes the biggest chunk with its strong brew.. Guwahati is home to the largest tea auction centre in Asia.. The golden Pat, Muga and Endi silk continue to cater to the domestic demand.. Fine bamboo and cane products along with ivory and bell metal articles produced in the state are well-known and have attracted wide national interest.. Oil giants like the Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited, Oil India Limited and the tea sector are the largest employers.. Besides, there are coalfields at Makum, Ledo and Margherita under the Coal India Limited.. The state?s tourism circuit has much to offer.. Besides the three national parks at Kaziranga, Manas and Nameri, there are numerous smaller sanctuaries.. There are many historic monuments and temples.. Among the must-see sites are the Kamakhya temple at Guwahati (referred to as the ancient Pragjyotishpur in the ancient texts), the Haigrib-Madhav temple and the Pua Mecca mosque at Hajo, Siva Dol, Rang Ghar, Kareng Ghar, Talatal Ghar and Gargaon Palace at Sibsagar and the Tocklai Experimental Station -the world?s first tea research organisation at Jorhat.. There are other attractions: the world?s largest riverine island of Majuli, Dibru-Saikhowa Reserve off Dibrugarh town, a sanctuary where wild horses roam.. The nearly extinct white-winged wood duck is found at Nameri near Tezpur.. The sensual stone carvings at Madan Kamdev in Sonitpur district, a visit to Tezpur, a dreamy town steeped in mythology, are among the options available for visitors.. The world?s oldest oil rig is to be seen at Digboi in Upper Assam, while Jatinga in the North Cachar Hills offers a challenge to naturalists to solve a ?bird mystery? that occurs each year.. Cruising along the Brahmaputra and stepping into the underdeveloped char areas, one is confronted by problems of social transition, ecological havoc, flood-induced devastation, besides health-related issues in the flood plains.. Tea garden labourers too offer a fascinating subject for research and study and a visit to Assam will be incomplete without a trip to a tea plantation..

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  • Title: Manipur : Centre for North East Studies and Policy Research (C-NES)
    Descriptive info: Manipur.. Described by Lord Irwin many years ago as the Switzerland of India , Manipur is the 20th state of the Indian Union.. Of the total area of 22,327 sq km, 20,126 q km are hilly terrain.. Imphal is its capital, situated at a height of 790 metres above sea level.. The plains area comprising about 2,200 sq km is surrounded by hills on all sides.. The 1991 census turned up a population of 1,837,149.. The state is bounded on the north by Nagaland, on the south by Mizoram, on the east by Myanmar and on the west by Assam?s Cachar district.. The oval-shaped valley is surrounded by an aura of mystery which has its roots in legends and folklore.. Ancient legends say that the discovery of Manipur was the result of the delight that the Gods took in dancing.. Relatively untouched, Manipur is a land of blue-green hills, valleys and azure lakes that have inspired many wanderers.. The average temperature in January, which is the coldest month, remains around a maximum of 200 Celsius and does not plummet below 40 Celsius either.. The highest temperature is recorded in April at 340 Celsius.. Even the summer nights are pleasant.. The 29 tribes that inhabit the hills of Manipur have separate dialects, customs, practices and dress codes.. The Meiteis who inhabit the plains are mostly Vaishnavite Hindus and speak Manipuri, a highly-developed language with a rich and ancient literature of its own.. Social scientists have classified the communities into three broad linguistic groups: Naga-Bodo group of Manipuris of the north district, eastern Naga group of the north and west districts, and Chin-Kuki group of the state?s south districts.. Literature is available on the Puram, Tangkhul, Sanamahi, Paite, Thadou, Mao-Maram, Chiru, Vaiphei, Hmar, Kom, Maring and Monsang groups.. The Purams are a patrilineal tribe and have a complicated marriage and kinship system.. They have undergone considerable change and prefer to be known as Chote.. The Tangkhuls are the biggest Naga group of the area.. They were the first to embrace Christianity in the state and are among the most educated and developed communities.. It is the folklore, myths, legends, dances, indigenous games and martial arts, exotic handlooms and handicrafts of these people that help make Manipur so unique.. Manipur reflects a mosaic of traditions and cultural patterns.. In the field of art and culture, the state is best represented by its classical and folk dance forms.. Raas Leela songs and dances depict the leelas (sports) of Lord Krishna as a child with the Gopis (milkmaids) of Brindavan, and express their yearning for communion with the Lord.. The Raas dances are lyrical and graceful.. A spring festival, the Lai-Haraoba, celebrated in April-May and symbolised by a traditional, stylised and ritualistic dance, is performed for peace and prosperity.. The hill tribal folk dances of Manipur are expressions of nature and creativity of the tribal way of life.. Manipuri women weave intricately-designed fabrics on their looms.. Popular lore has it that the Goddess Panthoibi drew inspiration for weaving after seeing a spider making cobwebs in a corner.. While almost every household has a loom, womenfolk alone are  ...   M) holds sway in the hill areas.. There are smaller outfits as well including the Kuki National Army (KNA), Kanglei Yawol Kanna Lup (KYKL), People s Revolutionary Army of Kangleipak (PREPAK) and the Kangleipak Communist Party (KCP).. Manipur is an area of high rainfall and humidity.. Agricultural production is much below its potential as the area under cultivation is not well-irrigated and use of fertilisers and other modern agricultural technologies is low.. Women share the work on farms.. Jhum cultivation is still practised in the hills, although terrace cultivation has gained popularity over the years.. Manipur is an example of the fact that realising the region s economic potential lies in harnessing its agricultural resources.. There are obvious hurdles to be overcome.. For example, land ownership by the community or the village chief in some cases and the land tenure system often act as a disincentive for proper development and maintenance of agricultural holdings.. Besides the present food and fibre crops, the capacity to grow a range of other economic crops too exists.. Vegetables and fruits such as banana, pineapple, peach, plum, pears, apples, apricots and walnut are grown at different altitudes.. Among the spices, ginger, turmeric, black pepper, cardamom, cinnamon and tezpatta (cinnamomym tarnata) do well.. Similarly, timber, fuel trees, as well as cane and bamboo are also sources of income.. The prospect of industries based on natural chemicals, agro-waste utilisation of arecanut husks, livestock feed, ethanol, natural wax, resin and lac besides cultivation of medicinal herbs, to name a few, are areas which hold promise.. Poultry, piggeries, dairying and pisciculture are also popular.. Sericulture, handloom and cottage industries are among major revenue earners and income generators.. Agriculture and allied sectors provide employment to over 75 percent of the state?s work force.. Any information on Manipur will be incomplete without mention of the only floating national park of its kind in the world on the Loktak Lake the Keibul Lamjao National Park.. This is the last natural habitat of the sangai the famous dancing or brow-antlered deer of Manipur.. In this unique wetland of floating reeds, the sangai has been brought back from the brink of extinction.. The wetlands are also home to hog deer, otter, water fowl and a variety of avian life.. The list of attractions is extensive: Lake Complex and Sendra Island, Shaheed Minar at the Veer Tikendrajit Park in the heart of Imphal, Shree Govindajee Temple adjoining the Royal Palace of Manipur?s former Maharajas, War Cemetery, Zoological Garden, Khonghampat Orchidarium, INA Museum at Moirang, Bishnupur Temple and the historic palace, temples and architecture of Langthabal.. Moirang near Imphal is the site where Subhas Chandra Bose set up the provisional headquarters of the Indian National Army.. He gave the call Delhi chalo from this small town where the Indian tricolour was first hoisted on liberated soil.. The hills are covered with forests ranging from tropical to sub-alpine.. Wet, temperate and pine forests occur between 900 to 2,700 metres above sea level.. Visitors should be in touch with the state Department of Tourism or the district administration concerned for reservations in guest houses, hotels, circuit houses and dak bungalows..

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