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    Archived pages: 27 . Archive date: 2013-12.

  • Title: COG home page
    Descriptive info: .. Home.. Corporate Info.. Projects.. Resource Centre.. Help.. Contact Us.. How does a CANDU Reactor work?.. Last updated.. June 28, 2013.. The CANDU Owners Group Inc.. (COG) is a not-for-profit organization dedicated to providing programs for cooperation, mutual assistance and exchange of information for the successful support, development, operation, maintenance and economics of CANDU technology.. All CANDU Operators in the world are members of COG.. Copyright.. CANDU Owners Group Inc.. Disclaimer.. 655 Bay St.. , 17th Floor, Toronto, ON, M5G 2K4, Phone: +1 416 595-1888; Fax: +1 416 595-1022; E-mail:.. cog@candu.. org..

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  • Title: COG Organization
    Descriptive info: Organization.. Programs.. Members.. Partnerships.. COG Organization.. COG is a not-for-profit corporation with voluntary funding from CANDU-owning utilities and AECL.. Currently COG Membership includes 5 Canadian and 6 offshore.. members.. The activities of COG cover four.. programs.. for collaborative research, information exchange, joint projects and regulatory affairs.. Mission.. To improve the performance of CANDU stations worldwide through Member collaboration.. Vision.. CANDU Excellence through Collaboration.. History.. COG was formed in 1984 by an agreement among the Canadian CANDU-owning utilities Ontario Hydro (now.. Ontario Power Generation.. ),.. Hydro-Québec.. and.. New Brunswick Power.. , plus.. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited.. In 1986 the offshore utilities that own CANDU units in.. Argentina.. Korea.. joined COG.. Following the accident at  ...   of a number of PHWR power reactors of CANDU design, joined COG in 1989.. With construction of CANDU reactors at.. Cernavoda.. Qinshan.. , the respective utilities in Romania and China joined COG in 1991 and 1999, respectively.. Under the original agreement Ontario Hydro was the administrator of COG reporting to a Directing Committee comprised of representatives of the four Canadian Members.. However, in 1999 COG was registered as a not-for-profit corporation and a Board of Directors was appointed to replace the previous Directing Committee.. In 2001 after signing a lease agreement with Ontario Power Generation to operate the Bruce A and B nuclear generating stations.. Bruce Power.. joined COG as an independent Canadian Member..

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  • Title: CANTEACH Project
    Descriptive info: CANTEACH.. CANTEACH Project.. CANTEACH is a non-commercial project supported by all Canadian nuclear utilities, major universities and industry associations and administered by COG.. Most of the project input comes from volunteer contributions of documentation, training courses and lectures provided by CANTEACH partners.. Purpose of the project:.. Capture the CANDU technology asset into comprehensive public technical library..  ...   Provide administrative support to the project.. Provide web site support and data management services.. Project deliverables:.. A set of lecture notes and courses in multi-media format.. CANTEACH web site.. that provides access to all technical documentation accumulated by the project.. Please visit the.. to find out more about the project and to browse the information available..

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  • Title: CANDU Reactors
    Descriptive info: CANDU Reactors.. CANTEACH Site.. Nuclear FAQ.. Industry News.. Environment.. Glossary.. Image Library.. Nuclear Links.. What is CANDU.. CANDU-specific features and advantages.. Highlights of CANDU History.. Did you know that.. How and Why is CANDU designed the way it is.. (pdf 63K).. CANDU stands for.. CAN.. ada.. D.. euterium.. U.. ranium.. It's a Canadian-designed power reactor of PHWR type (Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) that uses heavy water (deuterium oxide) for moderator and coolant, and natural uranium for fuel.. Use of natural uranium as a fuel.. CANDU is the most efficient of all reactors in using uranium: it uses about 15% less uranium than a pressurized water reactor for each megawatt of electricity produced.. Use of natural uranium widens the source of supply and makes fuel fabrication easier.. Most countries can manufacture the relatively inexpensive fuel.. There is no need for uranium enrichment facility.. Fuel reprocessing is not needed, so costs, facilities and waste disposal associated with reprocessing are avoided.. CANDU reactors can be fuelled with a number of other low-fissile content fuels, including spent fuel from light water reactors.. This reduces dependency on uranium in the event of future supply shortages and price increases.. Use of heavy water as a moderator.. Heavy water (deuterium oxide) is highly efficient because of its low neutron absorption and affords the highest neutron economy of all commercial reactor systems.. As a result chain reaction in the reactor is possible with natural uranium fuel.. Heavy water used in CANDU reactors is readily available.. It can be produced locally, using proven technology.. Heavy water lasts beyond the life of the plant and can be re-used.. CANDU reactor core design.. Reactor core comprising small diameter fuel channels rather that one large pressure vessel.. Allows on-power refueling - extremely high capability factors are possible.. The moveable fuel bundles in the pressure tubes allow maximum burn-up of all the fuel in the reactor core.. Extends life expectancy of the reactor because major core components like fuel channels are accessible for repairs when needed.. To learn more about CANDU reactors visit.. CANTEACH site.. ,.. The Canadian Nuclear FAQ.. by Dr.. Jeremy Whitlock or.. Nuclear Facts.. by CNA.. 1898:.. Ernest Rutherford was appointed professor of experimental physics at McGill University, Montreal, and set up a world centre for research into the structure of the atom and into radioactivity.. 1930:.. Gilbert Labine discovered Canada's first uranium deposit at Great Bear Lake.. 1939:.. Hahn and Strassman gave the first report on nuclear fission and Joliot-Curie, Halban and Kowarski found proof of it.. 1940:.. The first Canadian experimental work on nuclear fission began at National Research Council laboratories in Ottawa.. 1942:.. The first self-sustaining chain reaction was achieved at the University of Chicago.. 1943:.. The United States, Britain and Canada signed an agreement in Quebec City for joint action on nuclear fission.. British heavy water team from Cambridge University began transferring to NRC's Montreal Laboratories at the University de Montreal; it included Halban and Kowarski.. Canada's first heavy water was produced by Cominco in Trail, B.. C.. 1944:.. Construction began at Chalk River, the site chosen for the Canadian heavy water project.. 1945:.. ZEEP (Zero Energy Experimental Pile), Canada's first reactor, started operating at Chalk River on September 5.. 1946:.. Canada's Atomic Energy Control Act was passed into law.. 1947:.. NRX (National Research Experimental) reactor began operating at Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) on July 22 and went on to become one of the highest flux reactors in the world; it operated until 1992.. 1951:.. The world's first commercial cobalt-60 radiotherapy unit was installed at Victoria Hospital in London, Ontario.. Canada went on to supply cobalt-60 machines to 70 countries where they were eventually used to administer half a million treatments annually.. 1952:.. The Canadian government formed the Crown corporation, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited on April 1.. On December 12 the NRX reactor suffered a major accident, but was returned to service in 14 months.. 1953:.. Canada's first uranium mine opened at Beaverlodge, Ontario.. 1954:.. A partnership between AECL, Ontario Hydro and Canadian General Electric was formed to build Canada's first nuclear power plant, NPD (Nuclear Power Demonstration).. 1957:.. NRU (National Research Universal) reactor started up on November 3; it is still considered one of the world's finest for its versatility and high neutron flux.. 1958:.. The name CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) was chosen for the Canadian nuclear power station design, and the Nuclear Plant Division was established in Toronto.. Bertram Brockhouse's triple-axis spectrometer was installed at the NRU reactor.. The world's first tandem Van de Graaff accelerator began operation at CRL.. 1959:.. AECL announced the establishment of a second research facility to be built at Whiteshell, Manitoba.. 1960:.. Work began on the 200-megawatt CANDU prototype at Douglas Point on Lake Huron.. CIRUS, a research  ...   held seven of the top 10 places for lifetime performance among the world's reactors Korea.. Three CANDU-6 units in New Brunswick, Quebec, and South Korea went into commercial service.. The first of 4 Pickering A units was taken out of service for re-tubing the reactor.. 1984:.. The fourth CANDU-6 unit went into commercial service in Argentina.. The Douglas Point reactor was retired from service on May 5.. 1985:.. Because of over-supply of heavy water, the two plants in Nova Scotia were closed.. The first beam was extracted from AECL's superconducting cyclotron at CRL.. 1987:.. The NPD reactor was retired from service in May.. CANDU received the honour of being included in the top 10 Canadian engineering achievements of the past century, in celebrations marking Canada's engineering centennial.. 1989:.. Darlington Unit 2 produced its first power.. 1990:.. Darlington Unit 2 went into commercial service.. South Korea purchased a second CANDU reactor from Canada.. 1991:.. The full Tandem Accelerator Superconducting Cyclotron (TASCC) facility was commissioned at CRL.. The Dualspec neutron spectrometer was commissioned at NRU.. 1992:.. Darlington Unit 1 went into commercial service.. South Korea purchased a third and fourth CANDU 6 reactor from Canada.. 1993:.. Darlington Units 3 and 4 went into commercial service.. Point Lepreau was the leader in lifetime performance among more than 400 nuclear power reactors worldwide.. The last of the 4 Pickering A reactors to be re-tubed was returned to service.. The NRX reactor at CRL was permanently shut down on April 8.. 1994:.. On April 10 Pickering 7 broke the world record for continuous operation at 713 days; on October 7 it was closed for maintenance after setting an 894 day record.. AECL submitted the Environmental Impact Statement for the concept for disposal of used nuclear fuel to the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency.. Bertram Brockhouse was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics for neutron scattering work done at NRU (see 1958).. 1995:.. September 5 marked the 50th anniversary of the start-up of the ZEEP facility at Chalk River.. South Korea's HANARO research reactor, based on AECL's MAPLE technology, started up.. The NRU reactor passed its 1,500th day of operation without a shutdown of more than 130 hours a record unparalleled worldwide.. On October 8 Bruce 2 was shut down for an indefinite lay-up due to aging concerns and boiler tube integrity.. 1996:.. In January, Bruce Unit 3 became the first CANDU reactor in the world to reach 100 million MWh of lifetime gross energy production, enough to supply a city the size of Thunder Bay for 90 years.. On November 26, AECL signed a $4 billion contract for the sale of two CANDU 6 reactors to China.. Cernavoda 1 went critical for the first time on April 16 and began commercial operation on December 2.. 1997:.. On July 1, Wolsong 2 achieved commercial operation.. On October 16 Bruce 1 was shut down for an indefinite lay-up due to aging concerns.. At the end of December all Pickering A units were shut down for an indefinite lay-up as part of Ontario Hydro s Nuclear Asset Optimization Plan (NAOP).. 1998:.. Wolsong 3, South Korea's third CANDU, went critical for the first time on February 20 and achieved commercial operation on July 1.. On March 17 and April 9 Bruce Units 4 and 3, respectively, were shut down for an indefinite lay-up as part of Ontario Hydro s Nuclear Asset Optimization Plan (NAOP).. RAPS-2 was returned to service after a 4-year planned outage for re-tubing of the reactor.. 1999:.. Wolsong 4, South Korea's fourth CANDU, went critical for the first time on April 10 and achieved commercial operation on October 1.. 2000:.. Four PHWRs in India, RAPS-3 and 4 and Kaiga-1 and 2, went into commercial operation on June 1, December 23, March 5 and November 16, respectively.. 2001:.. On May 14 Bruce Power and Ontario Power Generation announced the successful financial closing of the lease transaction for facilities at the Bruce nuclear site.. 2002:.. On January 9 MAPS-2 began a planned outage for re-tubing of the reactor.. 50-years anniversary of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited.. 40 years of nuclear power in Canada.. Qinshan 4, the first of two Chinese CANDU units, went into service on December 31.. In 1987, the CANDU reactor, along with the CN Tower and the Alouette space satellite, was ranked as one of Canada's top ten engineering achievments during the previous 100 years.. There were 438 nuclear reactors in operation around the world in January 2002, 32 of them are of CANDU type.. Canada is the world's leading exporter of uranium, producing over one third of the world's uranium mine output.. Heavy water (D.. 2.. O) is 10% heavier than ordinary water and has a neutron moderating ratio 80 times higher than ordinary water..

    Original link path: /candu_reactors.html
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  • Title: Web site help
    Descriptive info: Website Help.. Site Map.. This web site was developed for and is best viewed with.. Internet Explorer 7.. 0.. Some of the files on this website are available in Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF).. In order to view these you need Acrobat Reader that can be downloaded by pressing a button below:.. If you have any questions or comments regarding this web site please.. contact the webmaster..

    Original link path: /website_help.html
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  • Title: COG Contact Us
    Descriptive info: Contact us.. 655 Bay St, 17th Floor.. Toronto, ON, M5G 2K4, Canada.. Phone: +1 416 595-1888; Fax: +1 416 595-1022;.. E-mail:..

    Original link path: /contactus.html
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  • Title: COG Contact Us
    Descriptive info: This site is maintained by CANDU Owners Group (COG).. Some pages may provide links to other web sites for the convenience of users.. COG is not responsible for the availability or content of these external sites nor does COG endorse, warrant, or guarantee the products, services or information described or offered at these other internet sites..

    Original link path: /disclaimer.html
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  • Title: KHNP fact sheet
    Descriptive info: COG Members:.. NB Power.. NASA (Argentina).. CNNO (China).. NPCIL (India).. KHNP (Korea).. PAEC (Pakistan).. SNN (Romania).. AECL.. Korea Hydro Nuclear Power Co.. , Ltd.. Wolsong Nuclear Power Site.. Show map.. Ltd (KHNP) is a subsidiary of Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO), a wholly government-owned corporation.. KHNP operates 20 nuclear power units and another 8 are under construction.. Out of the 20 operational units, 4 are CANDU-6 reactors at the Wolsong Nuclear Power  ...   units' generating capacity is approximately 15% of total generating capacity of Korea.. Unit.. Reactor.. Status.. Capacity (MWe).. In-Service Date.. Net.. Gross.. Wolsong A 1.. PHWR CANDU-6.. Operational.. 629.. 679.. 04/22/1983.. Wolsong A 2.. 650.. 700.. 07/01/1997.. Wolsong B 3.. 07/01/1998.. Wolsong B 4.. 10/01/1999.. Total installed capacity.. 2,579.. 2,779.. Contact Information:.. Korea Hydro Nuclear Power Company Ltd.. 167 Samsung-Dong, Gangnam-Gu.. Seoul 135-791.. Wolsong Nuclear Power Plant.. 260 Naa-Ri, Yangnam-Myun, Kyongju-Si,.. Kyong-Buk, 780-715..

    Original link path: /khnp.html
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  • Title: TQNPC fact sheet
    Descriptive info: China National Nuclear Operation Company.. Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Station.. China National Nuclear Operation Company is the owner of the Qinshan Phase III (Third Qinshan) nuclear power project situated in Zhejiang Province, China.. It is adjacent to Qinshan Phase I (Unit 1 - PWR) and Qinshan Phase II (PWR Units 2 and 3) nuclear power plants.. Qinshan Phase III (Units 4 and 5) use the CANDU-6 technology and are the first  ...   Canada Ltd.. as the general contractor.. Qinshan 4 began commercial operation on December 31, 2002, and Qinshan 5 - on July 24, 2003.. Qinshan is the first CANDU-6 project to use open-top reactor building construction, and the first project where commercial operation began earlier than projected date.. In total China has six operational nuclear reactors and another five are under construction.. Qinshan 4.. 640.. 12/31/2002.. Qinshan 5.. 07/24/2003.. Haiyan, Zhejiang.. 314300, China..

    Original link path: /tqnpc.html
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  • Title: NPCIL fact sheet
    Descriptive info: Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited.. Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL) is a wholly owned Enterprise of the Government of India under the administrative control of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), Government of India.. The company operates six nuclear power stations: Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS) (2 x BWR, 2 x PHWR) in Maharashtra; Rajasthan (RAPS) (4 x PHWR) in Rajasthan, Madras (MAPS) (2 x PHWR) in Tamil Nadu, Narora (NAPS) (2 x PHWR) in Uttar Pradesh, Kakrapar (KAPS) (2 x PHWR) in Gujarat and Kaiga (3 x PHWR) in Karnataka.. In total NPCIL operates 15 Pressurized Heavy Water  ...   units are planned for September 2010 and March 2011.. Kaiga 1.. PHWR CANDU.. 202.. 220.. 11/16/2000.. Kaiga 2.. 03/16/2000.. Kaiga 3.. Mar 2007.. Kaiga 4.. Under construction.. Kakrapar 1.. 05/06/1993.. Kakrapar 2.. 09/01/1995.. Madras 1.. 155.. 170.. 01/27/1984.. Madras 2.. 03/21/1986.. Narora 1.. Refurbishment.. 01/01/1991.. Narora 2.. 07/01/1992.. Rajasthan 1.. Laid up.. 90.. 100.. 12/16/1973.. Rajasthan 2.. 187.. 200.. 04/01/1981.. Rajasthan 3.. 06/01/2000.. Rajasthan 4.. 12/23/2000.. Rajasthan 5.. 02/04/2010.. Rajasthan 6.. Tarapur 3.. 490.. 540.. 08/18/2006.. Tarapur 4.. 09/12/2005.. 3,140.. 3,650.. Additional capacity under construction.. 606.. 660.. Vikram Sarabhai Bhavan,.. Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai - 400 094.. India.. Phone +91-22-5560222; Fax +91-22- 5563350..

    Original link path: /npcil.html
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  • Title: Kanupp fact sheet
    Descriptive info: Karachi Nuclear Power Complex (KANUPP).. KANUPP is one of two nuclear power stations in Pakistan and is owned and operated by Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission.. KANUPP is the oldest CANDU power reactor currently operating.. It completed its 30 years design life on December 5, 2002 and was  ...   important plant modifications / retrofits were carried out.. KANUPP was brought back in operation in January 2007.. Nuclear power provides about 3% of total electric power production in Pakistan.. Kanupp 1.. 125.. 137.. 11/28/1972.. P.. O.. Box 1114.. Islamabad.. Pakistan.. Karachi Nuclear Power Complex.. Box 3183.. Karachi 75400..

    Original link path: /paec.html
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    Archived pages: 27