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  • Title: Concordat Watch
    Descriptive info: .. |.. Translation (automatic).. German.. French.. Italian.. Spanish.. Polish.. Portuguese.. Croatian.. Serbian.. Slovenian.. Czech.. Slovak.. Romanian.. >' class='searchinput' />.. Advanced search.. Concordat Watch.. What's the harm in concordats?.. Separation of church state (secularism).. Religious threat to Human Rights.. Women religious law.. Follow the money.. Concordat strategy.. Tricks of the trade.. Stopping Concordats.. Where to find concordats.. What the terms really mean.. FAQ.. About us.. Sections.. Concordats by country.. Argentina.. Austria.. Belarus.. Brazil.. Britain.. Colombia.. Côte d'Ivoire.. Croatia.. Czech Republic.. Dominican Republic.. Ecuador.. France.. Germany.. Haiti.. Hungary.. Israel Palestine.. Italy.. Malta.. Netherlands - Belgium - Luxembourg.. Norway.. Peru.. Poland.. Portugal.. Slovakia.. Spain.. Trinidad Tobago.. Contact us.. Login:.. Pass:.. >' class='Ninput' />.. Concordats.. human rights.. separation of church and state.. A concordat is a legal agreement between a country and the Vatican.. It can set up a theological fiefdom where certain human rights do not apply and where they can never again be reintroduced without the consent of the Church.. This is why concordats represent a fundamental threat to both democracy and human rights.. The Vatican finds many uses for its concordats: in May 2012 the Italian bishops said that.. their concordat.. excused them from having to report to the police suspected cases of child abuse by fellow priests.. Concordat Watch.. is an online resource containing dozens of concordat translations, (most appearing in English for the first time), as well as related documents, general background articles and expert commentary.. What are concordats?.. Concordats are international treaties with the Vatican that may range from granting.. little more than diplomatic recognition.. to a legally binding.. commitment to observe key aspects of Vatican doctrine.. and to have taxpayers.. subsidise.. the Church.. Because the state may be put under pressure to enforce these Vatican policies,.. Concordat Watch also includes.. material on church-state separation.. , (political.. , but not religious secularism).. As.. Bishop Charles Scicluna.. has.. said.. , Sacred power, with all its trappings, is probably one of the most seductive things in the world.. What s the harm?.. Already a.. quarter.. of all health care in sub-Saharan Africa is provided by the Catholic Church.. The.. Order of Malta.. has a national branch in South Africa whose.. logo.. has a Zulu shield.. This work is increasingly being cemented by.. concordats.. between African nations and an order that stands directly under the pope..  ...   his foreign minister is enough.. Yet when the dictator is toppled, his concordat remains.. Read more.. 2.. Concordats can ensure a never-ending transfer of state funds to the Church.. Sometimes the money transfer is justified as compensation for church property nationalised as long as 200 years ago.. Concordats can lock in inflation-adjusted payments that cannot be ended unless the Vatican agrees.. Concordats often shift funds to the church by requiring that Catholic schools, hospitals and other agencies must be paid for by the state.. This gives the Church the say over what is taught and what services are offered, without having to pay the tab.. A concordat can also help Church agencies get tax exemptions, even for Church-run commercial enterprises.. And, despite all the state money flowing in, a concordat can ensure that the finances of the Church are kept secret.. 3.. Concordats can infringe on human rights.. By giving advantages to one religious group, concordats can violate the requirement that all citizens and all religions be treated equally.. Occasionally concordats have outlawed divorce, even for non-Catholics.. Concordats can also anchor other parts of Canon (or church) Law by stipulating that this is to be used within Church institutions.. However, since these also include social agencies, many non-clerics and even non-Catholics may find themselves legally obliged to obey Church rules.. Featured Topics.. I am not in the habit of discussing religious belief.. [It] only becomes.. fair game when it tries to impose itself by force or by legal subterfuge.. Sevan Nisanyan.. , Armenian author.. What are Concordats?.. These church-state accords give the Church massive state subsidies and other privileges.. They can effectively force liberal Catholics to observe orthodoxy, and can disadvantage non-Catholics, as well.. Hitler s concordat.. This concordat with Nazi Germany was negotiated by Cardinal Pacelli (later Pius XII).. It is still substantially in place, although all the other concordats with Fascist leaders have been revised or replaced.. Côte d Ivoire concordat.. A concordat was made especially for the basilica in the bush which is as big as St.. Peter s.. The concordat removes money from this desperately poor country for the upkeep of the huge and empty basilica.. Home.. Content.. Calendar.. Contact.. Links.. Access level: public.. This site uses.. cookies.. By continuing to use this site you agree to our use of cookies:.. OK..

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  • Title: Concordat Watch
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  • Title: Concordat Watch | Topics
    Descriptive info: Home page.. Content for Concordat Watch.. Concordat Watch references.. About Us.. If a mole hadn't revealed the plans, the concordat would have gone through without the voters even noticing..

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  • Title: Concordat Watch | Links/reviews
    Descriptive info: Featured Sites.. Concordat Strategy.. The Church likes authority.. It's much easier to sign a concordat with a dictator -- then there's no worry that a democratic legislature might refuse to ratify it.. This is why concordats are so often made with dictators: on Concordat Watch you can find ones concluded with Hitler, Mussolini, Franco, Duvalier, Trujillo and others.. Outstanding.. Edit.. In 2003 the Czech parliament refused to ratify the concordat, but the Vatican has won over the Czech Culture Ministry which is now preparing to push it through.. Germany retains its concordat with Hitler, even  ...   concordat made with Salazar.. The Vatican wouldn't likely receive such favourable terms if it were replaced, and Germany, of course, does not insist.. Featured Topics.. Hitler's concordat (1933) : Text and background.. This concordat with Nazi Germany was negotiated by Cardinal Pacelli, who in 1939 became Pius XII.. It is still substantially in place, although the other concordats made with early 20th-century Fascist leaders have been revised or completely replaced.. A concordat was made especially for the basilica in the bush.. The church is modelled on the pope's cathedral, but was planned to top it..

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  • Title: Concordat Watch | What's the harm in concordats?
    Descriptive info: - content area.. Concerns about democratic control.. A concordat clause for paedophiles?.. Brazilian concordat.. states (in Article 16.. 1) that priests are not employees of dioceses or religious orders.. This.. same claim.. was made before an English High Court to try to absolve the Church of any responsibility for paedophile priests.. If they are not its employees, the Church need not pay compensation to the victims.. This concordat would help it escape the claims which have.. bankrupted dioceses.. in the US.. Secrecy from legislatures.. From earliest times treaties have involved a two-step process: signature and ratification.. After the emissary negotiated and signed the treaty it had to be approved or ratified before his country consented to be bound by it, thus ensuring that he had not made unacceptable commitments on his own.. Today preliminary texts or draft treaties are often published before they are signed in order to serve as the basis for further negotiations.. Then, when the final text has been agreed upon and signed, the treaty text is usually published well in advance of the ratification vote so that there can be an informed debate on whether or not to accept it.. Like other treaties, concordats are complex documents and a country cannot unilaterally withdraw from them, making it advisable to leave time for sufficient legal scrutiny.. However, with some concordats this has not always been the case.. For instance, a number of concordat texts have not been revealed to democratic legislatures or the public until they are already signed.. This was the case with the concordats from Poland (1993),[1] Georgia (2003),[2] Brandenburg, Germany (2003),[3] Portugal (2004)[4] and Brazil (2008).. [4].. Though signing a treaty does not oblige a state to observe it, it does amount to a non-binding presumption that it will eventually be ratified.. Therefore, the state must refrain, as a matter of good faith, from doing anything to defeat the purpose of the treaty.. [5] In addition to imposing this limitation on the state, keeping the concordat text under wraps until it is signed prevents any input by the legislature.. This is because the act of signing a treaty indicates assent to the treaty text, even though it doesn't mean willingness to be bound by it.. Thus once the concordat is signed, the legislature can only accept or reject it as a whole.. [6].. fait accompli.. of a signed concordat can help increase pressure to get it ratified, as is suggested by the Polish concordat which was signed in 1993 before the text had been made known even to the parliamentarians, let alone the general public.. [1].. First, the signature imposed legal limitations, for it prevented the new constitution from enshrining the principle of church-state separation because that could have exposed the concordat to a constitutional challenge.. This would have violated the good faith commitment implied by the signature.. Thus in 1996 an earlier draft of the constitution was revised to remove any mention of this from the final version.. [7] In other words, the country s constitution had to accommodate itself to the secretly signed concordat.. Second, the fact that the concordat was presented to the parliamentarians already signed appears to have exerted psychological pressure, because some construed it as a promise to the.. Polish pope.. which should be fulfilled through ratification as soon as possible.. Thus.. President Kwa niewski.. hoped to present the ratified agreement as a gift to the Pope when he made his seventh visit to his homeland in June 1997.. [8] When that didn t happen in time, and after the concordat was only ratified the following year, the leader of a group of Polish MPs proposed sending the Pope an official apology for having taken so long.. [9].. And third, the fact that the concordat had already been signed gave it a momentum which made it easier to apply political pressure to get it ratified.. Thus in the.. Sejm.. debate about ratification at the end of 1997, doubters were depicted as obstructing the successful conclusion of the concordat due to a lack of patriotism.. The concerns expressed by some Polish MPs that the concordat had been prepared in secret and signed by a government which had lost the confidence of parliament were not discussed.. Instead, those who voiced doubts were accused of continuing the brutal war against the nation, imposed by the Communists.. [10].. Rushed ratification and legal ethics.. The situation is exacerbated when a concordat whose text has been held secret until it is signed is then rushed through the legislature.. The concordat for the German state of Brandenburg (2003) was scheduled to be ratified just two days after its text was revealed and this timetable was only cancelled when a copy of the secret text was leaked by a mole.. [11].. The Brazilian concordat (2008),[12] was also kept secret until it was signed.. Its advocates even proposed trying to bring in a new law to ensure its ratification.. They wanted to change the requirement that a treaty needed.. Congressional.. approval and, instead, permit it to be approved by a government committee, claiming that such a procedure would provide greater efficiency and speed than a Congressional debate.. [13] When it became clear that there would be no new law and that the normal ratification procedure would have to be followed, the Brazilian.. Bishops Conference.. sent one of its members to visit the President of Congress to ask his help in pushing through the concordat as quickly as possible.. [14].. Another concordat ratified under unusual circumstances was the Vatican agreement with Poland (1993).. [15] It was signed in the summer of 1993 after the government had lost the confidence of parliament[16] and then ratified by a simple majority in the legislature, even though the.. Polish Constitution.. (art.. 90.. 2) (Text) requires a two-thirds majority for ratification of an international agreement.. [17][18].. The mousetrap clause.. The Holy See, in whose name the concordat is made, is not only the government of the Catholic Church, but also of the.. State of the Vatican City.. [19] It is the Vatican s statehood that allows concordats to assume the form of international.. treaties.. By contrast, state agreements with other religious bodies do not have this international dimension.. The treaty status of a concordat means that once it is approved by the legislature it can no longer be altered or abrogated by democratic means, as can a domestic law.. This is because a treaty generally takes precedence over national laws, preventing them from overriding it.. [20] Thus no concordat can be changed by elected representatives without Vatican consent.. This requirement of mutual agreement , which is generally emphasized in a concordat's concluding article, has been dubbed by a critic, the mousetrap clause.. [21].. Concordats made with dictators.. In Western nations, a treaty is normally signed by a democratically-elected representative, often a country s foreign minister, and then tabled in a democratic legislature for ratification.. However, this is not the case with the many concordats concluded with states ruled by dictators.. The strongman s own signature may suffice to make the concordat binding, with no ratification necessary.. For example,.. Benito Mussolini.. himself signed the Lateran concordat between the.. Holy See.. and Italy (1929).. [22].. Alternatively, the dictator may have it signed by a member of his government.. Adolf Hitler.. had the Reichskonkordat with Germany (1933)[23] signed by his Vice-Chancellor,.. Franz von Papen.. who was also a.. Chamberlain of the Pope.. And there was no doubt that it would be ratified, for Hitler had already brought in the.. Enabling Act.. which allowed his government to pass anything it pleased.. In fact, it was on the very day after the Enabling Act vote that.. Ludwig Kaas.. , the priest and politician and expert in.. Canon Law.. , went to Rome in order to, as he put it, to investigate the possibilities for a comprehensive understanding between church and state.. [24].. Sometimes dictators don t even go through the motions of ratification.. Such was the case with.. François Duvalier.. and.. Jean-Claude Duvalier.. in Haiti (1966[25] and 1984[26] ) and also with.. Houphouët-Boigny.. in Côte d'Ivoire (1992), whose concordat states The present Agreement comes into force on the date of the signing.. [27].. Concordats outlive the dictators who made them possible.. Treaties can be abrogated on the grounds that.. circumstances have radically changed.. However, in practice, a transition to democracy does not cause the cancellation of concordats concluded with the regime of a dictator.. Thus concordats made by the following dictators were retained long after their departure, and indeed most of them are still in force.. These include the concordats with Mussolini in Italy (1929),[22] Hitler in Germany (1933),[23].. Salazar.. in Portugal (1940),[28].. Franco.. in Spain (1953),[29] François and Jean-Claude Duvalier in Haiti (1966[25] and 1984[26]),.. Trujillo.. in the Dominican Republic (1954),[30].. Dollfuss.. in Austria (1933),[31].. Aramburu.. Onganía.. in Argentina (1957[32] and 1966[33]),.. Bermúdez.. in Peru (1980),[34] Houphouët-Boigny in Côte d'Ivoire (1992)[27] and.. Tudjman.. in Croatia (1996).. [35].. The Catholic Church justifies this by asserting the legality of the treaties.. Archbishop.. Giovanni Lajolo.. , a former.. Secretary for Relations with States.. (the Vatican's Foreign Minister), defends the conclusion and retention of the many concordats with dictators: According to the norms of international law, it is the State (which remains) that concludes an agreement and not governments or regimes (which come and go).. [36].. This distinction between the state and the regime has enabled the Peruvian concordat to remain in force today, although it violates the country s present constitution.. On 28 July 1980 the new democratic constitution of Peru came into effect.. [34] It guaranteed religious equality (art.. 2), which could have caused problems for a concordat giving preferential treatment to the Catholic Church in education, tax benefits, immigration of religious workers, and other areas.. [37] However, just two days earlier the concordat had already been ratified by the departing military junta.. This was the government led by Francisco Morales Bermúdez who, in 2008, along with his Prime Minister, Pedro Richter, was prosecuted for disappearances in connection with.. Operation Condor.. [38] The fact that the concordat with this dictator came into effect just before the democratic constitution which could have prevented it is mentioned only in Latin.. At the end of the Spanish text on the Vatican website is a note with the crucial date written in Latin abbreviations and Roman numerals: die XXVI m.. Iulii a.. MCMLXXX , 26 July 1980 , the second last day of the dictatorship.. [39].. The Reichskonkordat (1933)[23] is another concordat made with the regime of a dictator and retained by the democratic state that succeeded it.. In 1957 when the papal nuncio complained that Lower Saxony, one of the German states, was disregarding it, the German Federal Government supported the nuncio by bringing the matter before the.. Constitutional Court.. [40] In essence, the judges agreed with Archbishop Lajolo that concordats made with regimes (which come and go) commit the State (which remains) : the German Reich had not disappeared as a subject of international law; it had merely lost its state organization and become the Federal Republic which was still bound by the concordat.. [41] Although the 1933 concordat has since been amended by various concordats with individual German states, (which took over some functions of the national government), this concordat made with Hitler remains in place.. Financial concerns.. State benefits for Catholic social agencies.. Concordats often stipulate that Catholic social institutions enjoy parity with state institutions serving the same purpose, including that they receive the same state subsidies.. Examples can be found in the concordats of Hungary (1997, I, art.. 2, III)[42] Slovakia (2000, art.. 17.. 2),[43] and Brazil (2008, art.. 5).. [12] This entitlement to equal funding applies even though, to conform to Catholic doctrine, Church-run hospitals may not offer the full range of legally-permitted services, such as abortion and contraception, and Catholic schools may not permit sex education.. Never-ending financial support.. Concordats can require inflation-adjusted payments for Church property that was nationalized long ago, sometimes with no provision for ending them unless the Vatican agrees.. In former.. Eastern Bloc.. countries, widespread nationalization of Church property took place under the Communists after 1945.. Compensation for this is laid down, for example, in the Hungarian financial concordat (1997).. [42] Other concordats stipulate payment for earlier nationalizations.. The concordat for the German state of Bavaria (1926) continues to require compensation for the.. Secularization of 1803.. , when the state took over.. principalities ruled by abbots and bishops.. [44] This payment, now made to the Lutherans, as well, is in addition to the.. church tax.. and it comes out of state funds.. In 2009, from Bavaria alone, it brought the Catholic Church 65 million.. [45].. Another agreement with the Vatican, the Lateran Financial Convention (1929)[46] obliges Italy to pay the Church for a still earlier loss, the abolition of the.. Papal States.. in 1870.. This treats the land solely as Church property, with no consideration for the inhabitants wishes.. These had been clearly demonstrated through the plebiscite of 2  ...   drawing more attention and thus increasing their likelihood of losing their jobs.. [76].. German courts, from the state employment tribunals up to the nation s.. highest court.. , uphold the right of the Church to enforce compliance with Canon Law on laymen.. [77] In accordance with a legal principle called the.. exhaustion of local remedies.. these rulings cite the German Constitution.. This principle means that a State must be given the opportunity to redress an alleged wrong within the framework of its own domestic legal system before its international responsibility can be called into question.. [78] However, although the direct appeal is made to the Constitution, it is the concordat which makes it clear that for the Church to run its affairs independently it must be free to apply Canon Law, a legal system not mentioned in the country s Constitution.. Human rights violations.. Certain concordat clauses have been judged by courts and legal experts to conflict with the requirements of human rights.. For example, the Colombian concordat (1973)[79] was found by the country's.. to be incompatible with international human rights norms in the areas of religious liberty, equality of marriage rights, freedom to teach, the rights of.. indigenous peoples.. and the right of military personnel to pastoral care according to their beliefs.. [80].. Another concordat, the unsigned draft of the Slovak Agreement on the Right to Conscientious Objection [81] was strongly criticized in 2005 by the European Union Network of Independent Experts on Fundamental Rights.. It pointed out that this concordat could lead Slovakia to violate three important human rights commitments: the.. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.. , and the.. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.. [61] In the face of this warning by human rights experts, Slovak Foreign Minister.. Eduard Kukan.. refused to sign the concordat.. This prompted the.. Christian Democrats.. to pull out of the coalition and led, in February 2006, to the government s fall.. [82].. And finally, a clause in the 2007 concordat with Brazil seems calculated to protect the Church from being sued for abusive priests.. From the point of view of the Vatican the problem first arose in 2002 iin the US when the clerical abuse scandal shocked the nation and that year one of the victims sued for damages, arguing that the diocese was liable because the priest was essentially its employee.. This argument was rejected by a federal US court in 2012, though this is going to be appealed.. [83] However, in Britain this same argument has been upheld in a High Court.. [84] The secret negotiations for the Brazilian concordat began in 2006, the year after the abuse scandal broke in that country and it was revealed that many priests had been targeting poor and fatherless children.. [85] The Vatican diplomats will have been well aware of the financil danger to the Brazilian Church of the claim, already making its way through American courts, that priests were Church employees and their diocese could therefore be sued.. Article 16.. 1.. of the Brazilian concordat should help prevent victims in Brazil from launching similar claims.. Notes.. Czes aw Janik [Institute of Political Sciences, University of Warsaw], Ko cielny projekt konkordatu z 1991 ( Church project Concordat of 1991 ), Racjonalista, 2003.. Extensively quoted in English.. http://www.. concordatwatch.. eu/topic-33531.. 843.. The signing of this secret concordat text was abruptly called off.. See: Felix Corley, Georgia: Catholics fail to break Orthodox monopoly , Forum 18 News Service, 25 September 2003.. forum18.. org/Archive.. php?article_id=144.. Konkordat in Brandenburg , IBKA Rundbrief, December 2003.. ibka.. org/artikel/rundbriefe03/brandenburg.. html.. 4.. Roseli Fischmann, Omissão da mídia sobre o acordo com o Vaticano ( Media neglect over the concordat with the Vatican ), Observatorio da Imprensa, 18 November 2008.. observatoriodaimprensa.. com.. br/artigos.. asp?cod=512JDB002.. 5.. EU Member States: Signing and ratifying a treaty , Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centre for Biomedical Ethics and Law.. http://europatientrights.. eu/countries/signing_and_ratifying_a_treaty.. 6.. Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Glossary of Treaty Terms: Signature.. fco.. gov.. uk/en/about-us/publications-and-documents/treaties/practice-procedures/glossary-treaty-terms.. Andrzej Dominiczak, Halina Postek and Barbara Stanosz, Letter to the European Union , Polish Humanist Federation and Polish Humanist Association, 15 March 2001.. http://humanizm.. free.. ngo.. pl/letter.. htm.. 8.. Concordat: Movement at Last , Warsaw Voice Online, 27 April 1997.. warsawvoice.. pl/archiwum.. phtml/430/.. Marian Krzaklewski.. , Komisja Spraw Zagranicznych , (Committee on Foreign Affairs), Sejm debate, 5 December 1997.. http://kronika.. sejm.. pl/kronika.. 97.. 3/text/pl/wk-7.. 10.. Antoni Macierewicz.. , Sejm o ratyfikacji Konkordatu , (Sejm [debate] on the ratification of the concordat), 12 December 1997.. 3/text/pl/ps-8.. htm#b15.. 11.. Gerd Wartenberg, Offener Brief an die Mitglieder des Landtags und der Landesregierung Brandenburgs , ( Open letter to the members of the State Parliament and the State Government of Brandenburg ), 30 October 2003.. org/artikel/ag03/hvbbkon.. 12.. English translation of 2008 Brazilian concordat.. eu/topic-37261.. [Congressional] Deputy Leonardo Picciani [of the PMDB] quoted in CCJ aprova análise conclusiva para atos internacionais ( CCJ [Commission of the Constitution, Citizenship and Justice] approves conclusive analysis for international acts ), Agência Câmara, 27 May 2009.. direito2.. br/acam/2008/mai/27/ccj-aprova-analise-conclusiva-para-atos-internacionais.. 14.. CNBB pede rapidez na aprovação do Estatuto da Igreja Católica , ( CNBB [Brazilian Bishops' Conference] asks to speed the adoption of the Statute of the Catholic Church ), Agência Câmara, 16 June 2009.. http://www2.. camara.. br/internet/homeagencia/materias.. html?pk=136211.. English translation of 1993 Polish concordat.. eu/topic-1331.. 16.. Prof.. Micha Pietrzak.. , Uwagi nad konkordatem [1] , ( Observations on the concordat [1] ), 17 June 1997.. racjonalista.. pl/kk.. php/s,3054.. Micha Pietrzak, Kwestia zgodno ci z Konstytucj konkordatu , ( The issue of the Concordat's compliance with the Constitution ), 31 January 1994.. php/s,2932.. 18.. Micha Pietrzak, Art.. 90 Konstytucji a ratyfikacja Konkordatu , ( Art.. 90 of the Constitution and the ratification of the Concordat ), 17 December 1997.. php/s,3058/q,Art.. 90.. Konstytucji.. a.. ratyfikacja.. Konkordatu.. 19.. Church or State? The Holy See at the United Nations , Special Report, Center for Reproductive Law Policy, July 1994.. population-security.. org/crlp-94-07.. How do concordats mesh with a country's laws? Legal experts explain.. Excerpts from the writings of Simon S C Tay, Alfred de Zayas and the EU Network of Independent Experts on Fundamental Rights.. eu/topic-38721.. 21.. Johannes Neumann, Mausefallen-Strategie: Zu den Haken des Konkordats zwischen dem Land Brandenburg und dem Hl.. Stuhl , ( Mousetrap strategy: On the catch in the concordat between the State of Brandenburg and the Holy See ), Junge Welt, 18 October 2003.. 22.. English translation of 1929 Lateran Concordat.. eu/topic-39251.. 23.. English translation of 1933 Reichskonkordat.. eu/showkb.. php?org_id=858 kb_header_id=752 kb_id=1211.. 24.. Enabling Act of 1933 , Wikipedia.. http://en.. wikipedia.. org/wiki/Enabling_Act_of_1933.. 25.. English translation of 1966 Haitian concordat.. eu/topic-39321.. 26.. English translation of 1984 Haitian concordat.. eu/topic-859.. 27.. English translation of 1992 Ivorian concordat.. eu/topic-41031.. 28.. English translation of 1940 Portuguese concordat.. eu/topic-38751.. 29.. English translation of 1953 Spanish concordat.. eu/topic-34561.. 30.. English translation of 1954 Dominican concordat.. eu/topic-886.. 31.. English translation of 1933 Austrian concordat.. eu/topic-1811.. 32.. English translation of 1957 Argentine concordat.. eu/topic-31391.. 33.. English translation of 1966 Argentine concordat.. eu/topic-29641.. 34.. English translation of 1980 Peruvian concordat.. eu/topic-39261.. 35.. English translation of 1996 Croatian concordat.. eu/topic-14211.. 36.. Holy See Diplomacy , Vatican Information Service, 15 November 2005.. ewtn.. com/vnews/getstory.. asp?number=62441.. 37.. United States Department of State, 2009 Report on International Religious Freedom - Peru, 26 October 2009.. unhcr.. org/refworld/docid/4ae861146e.. 38.. Ángel Páez, Peru: Operation Condor Tentacles Stretched Even Farther , IPS, 8 January 2008.. http://ipsnews.. net/news.. asp?idnews=40714.. 39.. Acuerdo entre la Santa Sede y la Republica del Perú (Agreement between the Holy See and the Republic of Peru),.. vatican.. va/roman_curia/secretariat_state/archivio/documents/rc_seg-st_19800726_santa-sede-peru_sp.. 40.. Reichskonkordat 3.. 1 Das Konkordatsurteil des Bundesverfassungsgerichts , Wikipedia.. http://de.. org/wiki/Reichskonkordat#Das_Konkordatsurteil_des_Bundesverfassungsgerichts.. 41.. See IV.. 2, Urteil des Zweiten Senats des Bundesverfassungsgerichts vom 26.. März 1957 zum Reichskonkordat, BVerfGE 6, 309.. servat.. unibe.. ch/dfr/bv006309.. 42.. English translation of 1997 Hungarian concordat.. eu/topic-753.. 43.. English translation of 2000 Slovak concordat.. eu/kb-1222.. 44.. Millions for the bishops: Why the German state pays the wages for the church , (translated transcription of Millionen für die Bischöfe: Warum der Staat die Gehälter der Kirche zaehlt ), Der Spiegel video, 7 June 2010.. eu/topic-41971.. 45.. Landespolitiker wollen Kirchen Millionenzuschüsse kürzen , Der Spiegel, 24 July 2010.. spiegel.. de/politik/deutschland/0,1518,708309,00.. 46.. English translation of 1929 Lateran Financial Convention.. eu/topic-39241.. 47.. Vatican during the Savoyard Era 1870 1929 , Wikipedia.. org/wiki/Vatican_during_the_Savoyard_Era_1870%E2%80%931929#End_of_the_Papal_States.. 48.. Benito Mussolini , Wikipedia.. org/wiki/Mussolini#Police_state.. 49.. Micha Pietrzak, Uwagi nad konkordatem [2] , ( Observations on the concordat [2] ), 17 June 1997.. php/s,3054/k,2.. 50.. English translation of 1984 Italian concordat.. eu/topic-39221.. 51.. English translation of 2004 Portuguese concordat.. eu/topic-4131.. 52.. Curzio Maltese, Property tax relief for the Church: EU takes Italy to court ( La Ue pronta a processare gli sconti Ici alla Chiesa ), La Repubblica, 25 June 2007.. eu/showdoc.. php?org_id=843 doc_id=1741.. 53.. Curzio Maltese, Tax crusade marches on the holy hotels ( Gli alberghi dei santi alla crociata dell'Ici ), La Repubblica, 25 October 2007.. php?org_id=843 doc_id=1761.. 54.. John Hooper, Church ready to forgo tax breaks, Guardian, 28 August 2007.. guardian.. co.. uk/world/2007/aug/28/italy.. johnhooper.. 55.. Malcolm Moore, Italian government near collapse after Vatican plot , Telegraph, 12 April 2008.. telegraph.. uk/news/worldnews/1576258/Italian-government-near-collapse-after-Vatican-plot.. 56.. Richard N.. Ostling, The Basilica in the Bush , Time Magazine, 3 July 1989.. http://jcgi.. pathfinder.. com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,958078-2,00.. 57.. The life expectancy for Cote d Ivoire for 2007 is estimated at 49.. 18 years, according to the US Government s International Database.. census.. gov/cgi-bin/ipc/idbsprd.. 58.. Archbishop Jean Louis Tauran, Rapports de l'Eglise catholique avec les Etats.. Principes et modalités , Speech before a French bishops conference in Lourdes, 5 November 2003.. eglise.. catholique.. fr/conference-des-eveques-de-france/textes-et-declarations/rapports-de-leglise-catholique-avec-les-etats.. -principes-et-modalites.. html?Left=1586 Right=1584.. Translated excerpts:.. eu/showtopic.. php?org_id=872 kb_header_id=824.. 59.. Sprawozdanie Komisji Nadzwyczajnej do rozpatrzenia projektu ustawy o.. ratyfikacji Konkordatu mi dzy Stolic Apostolsk a Rzecz pospolit Polsk ( Report from the Special Commission to examine the draft law on ratification of the Concordat between the Holy See and the Republic of Poland ), 14 March 1995, Minority Report, # 2.. pl/pdf.. php/s,2977.. 60.. A network of independent experts to assess the safeguarding of fundamental rights by the European Union Member States , European Commission.. http://ec.. europa.. eu/justice_home/news/information_dossiers/cfr_cdf/index_en.. 61.. The E.. U.. Network of Independent Experts on Fundamental Rights, CFR-CDF Opinion 4-2005.. doc, 14 December 2005, p.. http://158.. 109.. 131.. 198/catedra/images/experts/CONSCIENTIOUS%20OBJECTION%20(10).. pdf.. 62.. English translation of 1993 Maltese concordat.. php?org_id=13541 kb_header_id=35141.. 63.. Motu Proprio: Variations to the Code of Canon Law , Vatican Information Service, 15 December 2009.. asp?number=99444.. 64.. New papal decree clarifies role of deacons and result of defections on marriage , Catholic News Agency, 15 December 2009.. catholicnewsagency.. com/news/new_papal_decree_clarifies_role_of_deacons_and_result_of_defections_on_marriage/.. 65.. Dr.. Edward N.. Peters, In the light of the law, [canon lawyer s blog], 15 December 2009.. http://canonlawblog.. blogspot.. com/2009/12/omnium-in-mentum-two-important-changes.. 66.. Edward Bell, Catholicism and Democracy: A Reconsideration , Journal of Religion and Society, Volume 10, 2008.. http://moses.. creighton.. edu/JRS/2008/2008-5.. 67.. Interview with Prof.. Pawel Borecki, The Church dominates the state , translation of Ko ció ma przewag nad pa stwem , Trybuna, 25 July 2009.. php?org_id=931 kb_header_id=37751.. 68.. Pellegrini v.. Italy (2002) 35 EHRR 2.. http://sim.. law.. uu.. nl/SIM/CaseLaw/hof.. nsf/e4ca7ef017f8c045c1256849004787f5/c5b036db1b1a7cd4c1256a8f004dc75d?OpenDocument.. 69.. Carsten Frerk, German taxpayers subsidise 98% of faith-based social services , translation of Vorfahrt für Gott , Jungle World, Nr.. 14, 7 April 2005.. php?org_id=858 kb_header_id=32561.. 70.. Nursing in the United Kingdom , Wikipedia.. org/wiki/Nursing_in_the_United_Kingdom#History.. 71.. Article 137.. 3, Appendix to the Basic Law, Extracts from the German Constitution of August 11, 1919 [Weimar Constitution], Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (Grundgesetz, GG), 23 May 1949.. iuscomp.. org/gla/statutes/GG.. 72.. Code of Canon Law, (1983), Canon 751.. va/archive/ENG1104/__P2H.. HTM.. 73.. Article 18: Freedom of Religion, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948.. columbia.. edu/ccnmtl/projects/mmt/udhr/article_18.. 74.. Carsten Muth, Kirchenaustritt mit Folge , Südwest Presse Online, 3 May 2010.. swp.. de/ulm/lokales/kreis_neu_ulm/art4333,466386.. 75.. For a translation of this type of contract, see the last box on the right.. 76.. Katholische Klinik: Kündigung wegen zweiter Ehe , ( Catholic clinic: Fired due to second marriage ), Kölnische Rundschau, 1 July 2010.. rundschau-online.. de/html/artikel/1277881671279.. shtml.. 77.. Annette Jensen, Under God s Roof : translation of Unter Gottes Dach , Publik, April 2008.. php?org_id=858 kb_header_id=32531.. 78.. Silvia d'Ascoli and Kathrin Maria Scherr, The Rule of Prior Exhaustion of Local Remedies in the International Law Doctrine and its Application in the Specific Context of Human Rights Protection , Abstract.. http://ideas.. repec.. org/p/erp/euilaw/p0078.. 79.. English translation of 1973 Colombian concordat.. php?org_id=851 kb_header_id=38331.. 80.. Senator Viviane A.. Morales Hoyos, Religious liberty and cultural and ethnic pluralism in the Colombian Constitution of 1991.. Brigham Young University Law Review, 1999, p.. http://findarticles.. com/p/articles/mi_qa3736/is_199901/ai_n8845105/.. 81.. English translation of the 2004 Slovak Draft Concordat on the Right to Conscientious Objection.. php?org_id=849 kb_header_id=755 order=kb_rank.. ASC kb_id=1227.. 82.. Basic Treaty between Slovakia and Vatican caused problems , Slovak Radio, 8 February 2006.. eu/kb-31251.. 83.. Oregon: Vatican Is Not Employer of Abusive Priests, Judge Says ,.. AP.. , 20 August 2012.. nytimes.. com/2012/08/21/us/vatican-is-not-employer-of-abusive-priests-judge-says.. 84.. Catholic Church responsible for child abuse, High Court rules ,.. The Lawyer.. , 9 November 2011.. thelawyer.. com/catholic-church-responsible-for-child-abuse-high-court-rules/1010180.. article.. 85.. Scandal of sexual abuse by priests shocks Brazil's 125 million Catholics ,.. Guardian.. , 26 November 2005.. uk/world/2005/nov/26/brazil.. religion..

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  • Title: Concordat Watch - Separation of church and state (secularism)
    Descriptive info: Separation of church and state (secularism).. What is secularism?.. Secular Charter: Unpacking church-state separation.. Two myths about secularism.. Roger Williams erects a wall between church and state.. Seven arguments against secularism and how to reply.. Multi-faithism is bad news for women.. India s ideal of secularism.. Petition that Australia s no state church be interpreted as church-state separation.. French secularism (laïcité) seen as a precondition for human rights.. Nicholas and Benedict: a pas de deux to the tune of positive laïcité.. The Vatican s latest redefinition: positive (state) neutrality.. Quiet retreat from Vatican II s accomodation to secularism: five experts comment.. Total found: 21.. Pages:.. 1.. [Next>>].. Main home page.. Subsites.. Linked to.. -.. Church-state separation is a pre-condition for the free exercise of human rights.. It is true that such separation does not guarantee human rights as is shown by Communist dictatorships.. But it has been proven again and again that lack of it can threaten human rights as is shown by societies living under religious rules, whether Sharia, Hindu Law, Halaka or Canon Law.. Freedom for your fist ends where my face begins.. This is why no one's religious freedom can be absolute.. The European Court of Human Rights.. tries to balance.. religious freedom with other rights.. And the religious freedom demanded by an organisation must also be carefully scrutinised to make sure that it isn't an attempt to claim privileges over others.. According to a UN report (.. # 65.. ) this carries the seed of discrimination insofar as such a distinction in their status implies a difference in rights or treatment.. A flagrant example is the privileges accorded in many.. Vatican concordats.. ).. Some opponents of church-state separation redefine secularism as state neutrality to allow their group, among others, to get state funding.. Others try to discredit it by conflating secularism with atheism.. But it's a political, rather than a religious doctrine and its purpose is to help level the playing field in order to give a better chance for human rights.. The aim is to make sure that Human Rights always take precedence over religious demands.. But how is this to be done? This useful list shows what the separation of religion and the state means in practice.. Religion is protected from interference by the state - and vice versa.. Meg Wallace stresses that that political  ...   the larger society and keep them at the mercy of a patriarchal subculture.. This is the conclusion of Pragna Patel s important new study,.. Faith in the state? Asian women s struggles for human rights in the U.. K.. Secularism is India's national ideal, recognised as the only way to unify a diverse nation.. Although not always practised, it is entrenched in the Indian Constitution and confirmed by a landmark Supreme Court judgement.. Conservative Christian groups from abroad are lobbying to end Indian laws banning religious conversion through force, allurement or fraud.. According to an independent rights group these have not prevented the forced conversion of Christians to Hinduism.. Australia took over from the US Constitution the ban on establishing a state religion.. However, the highest courts in the two countries have interpreted this no establishment clause very differently.. This Australian petition asks the legislature to pass a law to interpret this clause (.. s.. 116.. ) broadly,.. as the US Supreme Court has done.. Such a law would ban privileges or subsidies to both religion and atheism.. Maurice Barbier says that separation of church and state prevents the state from supporting any religion or interfering with it and obliges religion to leave the public sphere open to all.. When both sides respect the boundaries, secularism provides a framework for freedom of conscience, tolerance and democracy.. Secularism does not guarantee human rights, but it helps make them possible.. Laïcité.. (French for secularism).. allows everyone to live together, whatever their beliefs or lack of beliefs.. However, now it is being threatened in the very country which gave it to the world.. This extract comes from the president of a multi-faith group,.. UFAL.. , devoted to gender euality, human rights and the separation of church and state.. In October 2009 the Church announced a new concept called positive neutrality which does not mean that the state should be neutral in terms of values or even that the state is obliged to treat all religions completely the same.. Instead, they're to be measured in terms of their constructive contribution to the state and society.. Excerpts from five important articles, including:.. How Vatican II leaves concordat privileges untouched.. How, beginning in the 1990s, Vatican II began to be quietly reversed.. How Cardinal Ratzinger s positive secularism and 1993.. Catechism.. undermine church-state separation.. Main home.. Section home..

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  • Title: Concordat Watch - Religious threats to Human Rights
    Descriptive info: Religious threats to Human Rights.. Vatican-Orthodox alliance to boost population.. A biologist sets the pro-lifers straight.. Religious law vs.. human rights: child brides.. How faith-based social services do an end-run around human rights.. Vatican attack on human rights through Canon Law, diplomatic immunity and other dodges.. Conscientious Refusal of Care: Vatican hobbles competing clinics.. Cutting off human rights at source: Clerics influence Europe at highest level.. French baby's human rights cause confrontation with Pope.. The Rights of Man reach an Ivorian village.. Warnings from the EU stall the Slovak concordat.. Canon Law in action: Were the Papal States a perfect society ?.. How secrecy shielded the Legion of Christ from the law.. Total found: 13.. Instead of openly rejecting human rights, the Vatican uses a customary tactic; it redefines them to bring them into line with its own doctrines.. ( True freedom is obedience.. ) These quietly revised human rights which are actually a part of Catholic doctrine, the Vatican then calls authentic human rights.. [1].. Conscientious Refusal of Care (CRC).. can put job pressure on medics.. and be deadly for patients.. CRC laws give job protection for health care professionals who refuse to perform procedures based on moral or religious grounds and sometimes even to those who.. refuse to refer.. a patient to a willing colleague.. However, they can also put practioners under religious pressure, since once they are legally allowed to refuse to help a patient, a religious employer may force them to do so.. And, as in the case of a Polish woman which is now awaiting trial, these laws can.. kill.. a patient.. Global Doctors for Choice.. was.. formed.. to try to keep this from happening again.. Savita Halappanavar s death shows how a system which ostensibly permitted abortion to save the mother s life failed to protect her from the conscientious objection of her caregivers.. Elizabeth Prochaska.. , barrister and founder of.. Birthrights.. The Vatican's attempt to undermine human rights is done in three main ways.. By making one human right cancel others.. Freedom of religion , when treated by the Vatican and others as an absolute, can end up violating other kinds of rights, as when conscientious objection is used to try to end access to abortion and contraception.. [2].. By rewriting the list of human rights.. The Vatican wants to trim the list to deny that access to family planning and freedom from discrimination on the grounds of gender (including gay marriage) are human rights.. [3] At the same time, the list is to be expanded in line with the Vatican s aim to protect life from conception until natural death.. [4] This new fetal right to life has already been enshrined in the constitutions of the.. ,.. and.. most of the states in Mexico.. The Vatican is also trying to get recognition for what it calls the natural family , a patriarchal setup where there is no birth control.. In the name of parental rights the Church opposes both the religious and sexual self-determinatin of young people.. [5] In other words, human rights are to be rewritten so that they faithfully mirror Church doctrine.. [6].. By claiming that human rights depend on God, (whose will is made known by the pope).. The Vatican claims that God is the source of human rights, which makes them depend, in practice, on the Church which claims to carry out His will.. This leads to talk of true human rights which like Vatican talk of.. positive secularism.. in many cases happens to be exactly the opposite of what most people mean by these terms.. This redefinition can be long and convoluted: in fact, this seems to be intentional.. If the Vatican were to say simply: Skip with human rights and just obey the Pope few would listen.. However because they are redefined in terms of transcendent dignity , natural law or true freedom people tend to lose the thread and be impressed.. [7].. However, the basic idea behind human  ...   allowed by the Vatican for young girls to marry is14.. In the US and UK human rights remain on the law books, while religious organisations increasingly take over many state functions and are exempted from having to observe any human rights that they object to.. This applies to religiously run schools, hospitals, social welfare agencies and.. prisons.. Even state institutions like the military, which are not run by religious groups, have to fund increasing numbers of chaplains.. The Vatican tries quietly to elevate Church doctrine above human rights.. It has not signed some human rights treaties and in some others has made reservations which keep it from having to comply.. This strategy gives the Church leverage, prevents it from being held accountable for priestly abuse, and protects its courts from charges that they violate the right to a fair trial.. The Vatican forbids in birth control and abortion services in Catholic hospitals and tries to prevent them being offered elsewhere.. It even stands to profit from its moves to get the United Nations and national governments to cut off funding for birth control and abortion in all clinics, since that removes the competitive advantage enjoyed by non-Catholic clinics which do offers these services.. For an example of this worldwide strategy, follow the health dollars in the US.. The unelected faith leaders of the European Union are successfully claiming the right, by way of prior consultation , to input into the laws of the EU.. How the churches intend to increase their influence in the EU.. Clerics want more influence on all EU agencies (COMECE and CEC, 2010).. Council of Europe endorses religious exemption from human rights (2010).. Council of Europe won t protect women s access to lawful medical care (2010).. Sophia in t Veld.. :.. The need for a secular voice in the European Union (2010).. The rise of Europe.. s religious right.. (2011).. The new baby caused a classic collision between a secular state and a theocracy:.. No, Your Holiness, she is not a baptised Jewish baby who belongs to the Church.. She is a tiny citizen of France and has the rights of any other Frenchman.. Human rights must trump Church doctrines, says report of European Union lawyers.. Medical professionals should not have an unlimited right to impose their beliefs on others by refusing to provide contraceptives, perform abortions, etc.. in cases where this effectively denied a patient treatment which is allowed by law.. When the EU experts said that this treaty between Slovakia and the Vatican could violate international human rights, the concordat was put on ice but.. not shelved.. How can people come to see as a problem those parts of their own traditions which trample on human rights? An appeal to something more important than cultural or religious tradition is a revolutionary idea.. This account by human rights workers captures the excitement on first hearing about human rights.. The women of the Côte d'Ivoire today show what it must have felt like to people in Europe two centuries ago, as they made the thrilliing discovery: We have rights!.. Until 1871 church and state were one in the Papal States of Central Italy.. With the pope as absolute monarch, the Church had centuries to show the the world how to run a country in accordance with Divine law.. Unfortunately, the Holy Father found that he needed a police state to keep his subjects from rebelling to try to enjoy the Rights of Man.. The secrecy vow removes Legion of Christ members from the protection of secular law.. The Vatican did not intervene, despite more than 50 years of warnings about the founder Fr.. Maciel.. The Legion is too useful, as it goes where the priest can t , bringing money, influence and new priests.. Cardinal Ratzinger is shown on.. ABC TV.. in 2002 refusing to discuss the scandal.. Yet the Vatican claimed in 2010 that even the priests in the Legion didn t know what was going on..

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  • Title: Concordat Watch - Women and religious law
    Descriptive info: Women and religious law.. More than a dozen articles from all over.. show the effects of Vatican policies on women.. In contrast to these a.. brilliant 2012 United Nations report on preventing injury and death among pregnant women.. demonstrates a rights-based approach which would do much to increase their health and happiness.. [1] It is sad that women still have to fight for what comes naturally to men reproductive freedom.. Condom lies from the very top.. Cardinal Alfonso Lopez Trujillo, President of the Vatican s Pontifical Council for the Family,.. 9 October 2003.. :.. The Aids virus is roughly 450 times smaller than the spermatozoon.. The spermatozoon can easily pass through the net that is formed by the condom.. Benedict XVI, Supreme Pontiff, Vicar of Christ,.. etc.. , on the problem of AIDS,.. 17 March 2009.. You can't resolve it with the distribution of condoms; on the contrary, it increases the problem.. Although the record shows that Pope Francis is solidly anti-choice [3] he takes a softly-softly approach.. He explained why he didn't preach against abortion at the World Youth Day: It wasn t necessary to talk about that, but about positive things that open the way to youngsters.. [4] And he has advised anti-choice Catholics to be astute in promoting Church doctrine: Don't be fools.. [5].. The real target of the Vatican's anti-abortion campaign is family planning.. Humanae Vitae.. , Pope Paul VI s 1968 reiteration of Church prohibition against artificial birth control, is in fact, infallible Catholic doctrine.. This was underlined in 2013 by a Cardinal who said that contraception is fundamentally an anti-life act.. [6].. However, it's more strategic to attack abortion than contraception.. This is why churchmen claim that morning-after pills and IUDs are abortificient.. Vatican envoy Archbishop Zygmunt Zimowski has even told the World Health Organization that emergency contraception is a direct attack on the life of the unborn child.. [7] Apparently the Archbishop knows better than.. most scientists.. who say that these methods work by preventing fertilisation.. [8].. The Vatican knows that the best way to control a woman is to burden her with more children than she feels able to cope with.. Almost a century ago Pope Pius XI.. stressed.. that married women must be fruitful and obedient.. [9] Nowadays fruitfulness is called giving life and obedience in Vatican-speak becomes true freedom.. Regardless of what they re called, fruitfulness leads to obedience, as a woman worn out with childbearing will be more docile and her children will serve as hostages.. Her inability to leave may even turn into acceptance.. Psychologists have.. found.. that the less control people feel over their own lives, the more they come to endorse systems and leaders that offer a sense of order.. [10].. Women pay for Vatican policies with their happiness and health.. A 2012.. Lancet study.. shows that giving women the protection they want would save one in every three women who die due to childbearing.. Even the present use of contraception was averting 272,000 maternal deaths per year, and making it available to all those who wanted it would save the lives of a further 100,000 women.. [11] However, apparently the Vatican doesn't to wish to extend the right to life to them.. The Vatican's alliance with the Evanglicals to combat reproductive freedom, first.. formalised in 2006.. , is bringing these Protestants ever closer to Catholic Vatican doctrine.. [12] In 2012 the flagship US Evangelical publication even began to question the morality of contraception, which was.. noted.. triumphantly by main the Catholic anti-choice site.. If this trend continues, the implications are enormous.. And not just in the US, where in 2012 the trend to decreased access to abortion continued.. [13] Access was also jeopardised worldwide, since the US has been a major international donor to health clinics in developing countries and to the UN Population Fund.. [14].. This is now threatened by the.. anti-choice alliance.. between the Vatican and an increasing number of other conservative religious groups.. [15] And it is having an effect on women worldwide.. In 2013 UN leaders were forced to admit that, far from advancing towards the goals of providing for sexual and reproductive  ...   trying to get the young men in the poor, angry suburbs where the police fear to tread working towards job qualifications, not martyrdom.. She argues that the solution to the jihadist subculture of the young men in these neighbourhoods is secularism.. And she also says that secularism is the key to equality for these communities' oppressed women.. How can people be helped to see their traditions not simply as the way things are, as a problem if these traditions trample on human rights? An appeal to something more important than cultural or religious tradition is a revolutionary idea.. This account by human rights workers captures the excitement on first hearing about human rights the same thrill felt in Europe two centuries ago, as among the women of the Côte d'Ivoire today: We have rights!.. This pink marble church, built by an ailing dictator who was worried about his soul, is modelled on the pope's own cathedral, St.. Peter's, but was planned to top it.. The funds for the upkeep of the huge and empty basilica are guaranteed by a concordat.. The Vatican appears to have no qualms about taking money from a land where most people don't reach the age of fifty, but it requires that all financial accounts be kept secret.. To treat people as members of a group rather than as individuals is to jeopardise their rights.. Mother's cross and Maria cult.. Hitler said that women's bodies belonged to the German people, while the Church claimed that they were the property of the Holy Ghost.. But these varying accounts made little difference in practice.. Both meant that her body didn't belong to her and should therefore be used to produce the maximum number of soldiers or Catholics.. The mother s cross symbolised both the nationalistic and religious pressures to reproduce.. An inside look at faith-based social services in Germany.. From birth to death many Germans depend on social services that are paid for by the taxpayer, but run by the church.. These church institutions, both Catholic and Protestant, operate in accordance with their own religious laws and they affect both employees and clients.. These accounts of ordinary Germans show what it means to live in the shadow of religious laws.. Many must accept interference in their private lives without complaint, or risk being unemployed.. Slovak concordat threatens church-state separation and women s rights.. International protests eventually led to the fall of the Slovak Government at the beginning of 2008.. Among these were 131 human rights and religious groups which urged the Slovak Prime Minister not to sign the conscience concordat.. They say it would set a dangerous precedent, contravene the Slovakia's separation of church and state, violate international treaties on women s rights and that it is not needed to guarantee freedom of conscience.. The Church reshapes Polish society.. Three Poles report on increased Church influence and restrictions on women since the end of Communism.. They wonder if, after winning their freedom from the Communist dictatorship, they are now being threatened by another authoritarian system.. After 1989 women found that a democratically elected government gave them the right to vote in fair elections but took away the right to decide about their own bodies.. Papal photo-op leaves Slovak mother feeling used.. In 2003 Pope John Paul II visited Eastern Europe for the last time.. His aim was to discourage any liberalisation of Slovakia s abortion laws, for that would have made it harder to push through the upcoming concordat on freedom of (Catholic) conscience which would have helped end women s reproductive freedom.. This papal visit, his third to Slovakian territory, was planned as an anti-abortion campaign.. The hallelujah weekend of Ireland.. The papal visit of 1979 boosted Irish fertility after John Paul II's exhorted the women of Ireland to be fruitful like the Virgin Mother.. Then a tragedy led many to reconsider what they had been taught and to use their good Catholic consciences in an independent fashion.. However, Ireland's politicians still seem frightened of the Church and thirty-four years later brought in only the minimum concessions on.. abortion access.. which were necessary to satisfy national and EU legal requirements..

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  • Title: Concordat Watch - Follow the money
    Descriptive info: Religious institutions have been defined, from a financial point of view, as.. unregulated on-shore tax havens subsidised by taxpayers to pursue the supernatural.. *.. In turn, the national Catholic churches send money to the off-shore tax haven of the Vatican State.. And it, in turn, has an off-shore tax haven.. in the Caymen Islands.. Although the Vatican Bank remains inscrutable, bankruptcy proceedings have shed some light on the finances of the US Church.. (See.. The Catholic church in America: Earthly concerns.. The Economist.. , 18 August 2012.. Of course, the Vatican isn t the only church that tries to keep its accounts secret.. The Greek Orthodox Church claims it has.. no idea.. about its own finances, even though it owns more land than anyone except the state, employs thousands on the public payroll and has a stake in the nation's biggest bank.. Vatican Bank.. (Institute for Religious Works).. The IOR is built on secrecy.. It keeps secret accounts, does no audits and claims to destroy records after ten years.. The murky Vatican Bank has been making promises to three international monetary watchdogs to provide more financial transparency since 1998.. To keep using the euro, it agreed in 2009 to submit to the anti-money-laundering laws of the European Union, but has dragged its feet and only done the minimum demanded of it.. However, according to a Mexican bishop, money laundering by the Church is theologically impossible, anyway.. The secret costs of papal visits.. Both sides try to keep the costs of papal visits hidden from the taxpayers.. The security costs, the largest item by far, never seem to be included in published government figures.. An Australian government declared the total expenses to be a state secret.. And it has been revealed that to pay for the Pope's state visit the British Government quietly diverted money meant for aid to the world's poorest people.. Spanish Catholics protest new way to hide papal visit costs.. The Pope visited Spain in August 2011 for the Catholic Church s World Youth Day.. In May the jobless rate among Spain s generally well-educated young people reached nearly 45 percent, a record in any industrialized country.. Despite this lost generation a huge religious festival was staged at public expense with the Pope s wealthy corporate sponsors only paying for 20 percent of their donations.. Church, state and money: How Italy subsidises the Vatican.. The Vatican Secretary of State objected to the publication of these revealing articles, telling the Italian newspaper Let's stop this , but he has not disputed their accuracy.. Here is the complete groundbreaking series from.. La Repubblica,.. as well as updates on Europe s belated move to challenge Italian subsidies to the Church under the EU competition rules eleven articles specially translated  ...   be sent abroad and remain beyond the reach of the law.. Conscience clause: Vatican hobbles competing clinics with Church rules.. It can pay well to force Church doctrines on the general public.. The Vatican stands to profit from its moves to prevent the United Nations and national governments from funding birth control and abortion services.. Keeping these out of all the clinics removes the competitive disadvantage of non-Catholic ones.. German taxpayers subsidise 98% of faith-based social services.. Few know that social service employees of German religious organisations number almost 2 million.. And most Germans themselves have no idea that their churches pay for less than 2% of their good works , with the taxpayer left to foot the rest of the bill.. This is revealed in an important essay, available in English for the first time, by Dr.. Carsten Frerk, an authority on German church finances.. The Hidden Wealth of the German Catholic Church.. Only the budget of the diocese, (funded by the church tax on its members), is public.. The rest, accumulated over centuries and invested widely, forms a shadow budget, known only to the bishop and his closest associates, and not reviewed by the tax authorities.. Despite cash assets estimated at about 50 billion, the Church is cutting back its own small contribution to its good works , threatening many with closure.. (.. Spiegel,.. 14 June 2010).. Millions for the bishops: Why the German state pays the wages for the church.. How did Germany become the cash cow of the Vatican? An English transcript of the lively.. Spiegel.. video.. from 7 June 2010 reveals this unknown story.. A few weeks after it came out, German politicians broke a taboo and began to.. publicly question.. their 200-year-old tradition of taxing everyone for the salaries of clerics at a cost of 460 milllion every year.. More than 6 billion of public money reported to go to the Catholic Church or its organisations in Spain.. In the 1979.. Finance Concordat.. the Spanish Catholic Church promised to become self-supporting three years after it began receiving church tax.. Yet the Church has yet to meet the 1987 deadline.. Even after the government increased it from 0.. 52% to 0.. 70%, still no luck.. This report from Spanish organisation.. Europa Laica.. (Secular Europe) itemises the subsidies.. Research report: Subsidised religion in the US.. A new study shows that religions receive at least 40 percent of the huge subsidy given to agriculture in the United States (and probably far more).. This includes state funding through exemptions from income tax, property tax and investment tax, parsonage exemption and direct subsidies through faith-based initiatives.. Yet they devote a far smaller proportion of their funds to welfare work than secular charities, and not much more than corporations..

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  • Title: Concordat Watch - Concordat Strategy
    Descriptive info: The Vatican s triple crown: church, government and state.. Order of Malta the Vatican s second treaty-making sovereign entity.. Worldwide extension of concordats.. The left gets a modus vivendi, the right a concordat.. Quotes on concordats.. Pope s claim to temporal power based on 8th-c forgery.. Concordat agenda, 1075: the Papal dictation.. U-turn on concordats.. Concordats and authoritarianism.. Total found: 14.. For over 900 years concordats have been central to the Vatican's attempt to wrest power from the state.. The pope made three bids to control England.. After he failed to get William the Conqueror to swear fealty to him, and his legate got chased out for trying to assume rule over the country, in 1107 the pope.. finally.. managed to get the Henry I to sign the first concordat.. These agreements with the Vatican, giving it political and financial privileges, have now been concluded with dozens of countries, with more appearing every year.. These church-state accords often give the Catholic Church massive state subsidies and other privileges.. They can also permit Church employees to be hounded about their private lives.. Yet as international treaties , concordats bypass the democratic process, making parliaments powerless to modify, let alone revoke them.. They are traditionally concluded.. under various names.. with the Vatican, but can also be made with the Order of Malta.. The Vatican is inserted into the international community because it is a state; once there, it behaves like a church.. By setting up three legal identities and then adroitly switching from one to another, the Vatican has obtained unprecedented legal rights and international influence.. This brilliant video sums it up:.. Vatican City explained.. The Sovereign Military Order of Malta has concluded more than 70 concordats with countries worldwide.. Called cooperation agreements , these treaties let it deliver state-funded social services in accordance with Catholic doctrine.. This religious order is sovereign when it deals with  ...   canon law to be used in Church institutions and this includes social services that are run by the Church, but funded by the state.. Numerous polls.. show that most Catholics do not agree with many of these Church rules.. (And no one but a neo-Nazi could agree with the.. pre-1917 version.. of Canon Law.. Quotes from popes, prelates, lawyers and historians give a lively look at Vatican concordats from many different points of view.. This most remarkable of forgeries for its practical effect on world-history was used to justify the pope owning his own kingdom.. In fact, this forged Donation of Constantine even let the pope claim to be the overlord of emperors and kings, the supreme ruler in former Western Roman Empire.. The book that finally exposed the document as fraudulent was banned by the Vatican.. This internal Vatican memo dictated by Gregory VII sets his agenda for increasing papal power, and underlies his demand that William the Conqueror pay him fealty.. The English king's.. refusal.. helped shift the power struggle from outright Vatican sovereignty of Christian nations to Vatican control over their bishops, (the investiture controversy ), and led to the earliest concordats.. A century ago the Vatican denied that concordats were treaties and claimed that popes were not bound by them.. It was said to be theologically impossible for the Church, the highest society of all, to be placed under an obligation by a lower one, such as the state.. Has this conviction really changed, or is the U-turn due to improved marketing?.. Authoritarianism concentrates power in one man or group.. Blind obedience comes to be seen as the necessary glue for keeping society together and people are trained to accept subordination by growing up in a patriarchal family, which the Vatican calls the.. natural order.. However, as recent research shows, a lack of power is deeply damaging to the individual..

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  • Title: Concordat Watch - Concordat diplomacy: Tricks of the trade
    Descriptive info: Concordat diplomacy: Tricks of the trade.. Seventeen tricks to get a concordat through.. Papal trips: both pastoral visits and state visits.. Vatican diplomacy at home and abroad.. Concordats as international treaties.. How do concordats mesh with a country's laws? Legal experts explain.. Vatican s World Youth Day 2005 funded by European Union.. How John XXIII took up relations with the Communists by sending birthday greetings to himself:.. Are Vatican reservations on the UN children's treaty just legal tricks?.. Excerpt from the Vatican in World Politics.. Vatican Foreign Ministers: Casaroli.. Total found: 15.. How does the Vatican get a country to enter into a concordat? A pincer movement can combine diplomatic pressure from the Vatican state outside the country with religious pressure from the Church inside the country.. Papal trips play a role here and share the ambiguity: they are called both state visits and pilgrimages.. Vatican diplomacy,.. described.. in the Wikileaks as always active and influential behind the scenes , is conducted by three principal means:.. a diplomatic corps:.. an independent micro-state:.. and reciprocal state visits :.. Here are 17 tricks to help get a concordat signed and ratified, with examples showing how these dodges work.. This is your guide if you hope to become foreign minister at the Vatican.. Above all, don t forget the mousetrap clause : this frees the concordat from democratic control forever and lets you move on to the next one.. Fortuna!.. On his travels John Paul II switched between the roles of visiting head of state and religious leader.. He used his state visits paid for by his hosts, for pastoral visits where he evanglised at the World Youth Days that he inaugurated, issued moral guidance on proposed laws and reined in liberation theologians.. Included is a list of the 104 trips of John Paul II.. The personal charisma displayed on these trips distracted people from his conservatism.. Governments try to keep the costs of papal visits hidden from the taxpayers, especially security, the largest item by far.. In Australia the  ...   over constitutions.. In dualist countries, on the other hand, concordats must be incorporated into national law and their priority varies, though, even here concordats generally outweigh national laws.. World Youth Days were begun by Pope John Paul II in 1984 order to evangelise the young people who were leaving the Church in increasing numbers.. Twenty years later the European Parliament was called upon to subsidise this.. On 15 December 2004 it rejected in its first reading the earmarking of 1,5 million Euros for the funding of World Youth Day 2005 in Cologne but the next year the grant got through.. The Vatican has signed the United Nations treaty to protect children with a reservation that says it can only be applied in line with Church teaching.. However, the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child is quite different from the Catholic Church s Canon Law, which is what this reservation insists its implementation must conform to.. Does this make a mockery of the Vatican s signature?.. The West s acceptance of the Berlin Wall indicated that Communism was going to remain unchallenged and was there to stay.. This obliged the Church to find a way to begin negotiating with its sworn enemies without this looking like standard political manoeuvring.. The solution was ingenious.. This legendary cardinal-diplomat served under five Popes.. Appointed roving ambassador in Eastern Europe in 1961, he took part in the 1975 Helsinki Conference, urging that religious freedom be monitored in Communist countries.. After the election of the Polish pope he is claimed to have worked secretly with the US to use religious zeal to weaken the USSR.. (See this story.. These are not the.. sometimes unsupported.. theories of Avro Manhattan, but rather his astute observations of diplomacy: The Papal representative has at his disposal, not only the diplomatic machinery that any ordinary diplomatic representative of a lay State would have, but also the vast religious machinery of the Catholic Church inside the country to which he is accredited, as well as outside it..

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