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    Archived pages: 245 . Archive date: 2013-08.

  • Title: Home
    Descriptive info: .. Home.. Main Exhibits.. About Bacteria.. What are bacteria?.. Other Microorganisms.. Bacteriology.. Applied bacteriology.. Bacteriophages.. Bacteria and our senses.. Pathogenic Bacteria.. Pathogens.. Pathogenicity.. Epidemiology.. Food And Water Safety.. Food safety.. Water safety.. Good Bacteria in Food.. How We Fight Bacteria.. The immune system.. Antibiotics.. Vaccination.. Evolution.. The origin of life.. Mutations in bacteria.. Extremophiles.. Commensals.. Special Features Files.. Bacteria and crime.. Bacterial Diseases in History.. Bugs and Microbugs.. Images of Bacteria.. Microbial Ecology.. The Plague.. Wine and vinegar making.. Bacteria and plants.. Bioterrorism.. Bacterial Species Files.. Guest entries.. About this Museum.. History of this Museum.. Trudy Wassenaar, Curator.. Martin Blaser, Founder.. FAQ.. Contact us.. Guided tour.. 1.. 2.. Pathogenic Bacteria.. 3.. 4.. 5.. 6.. Write a Guest entry!.. You can write a guest entry and publish it in the museum.. Choose your pet subject and browse the internet for relevant links.. Write your text for a general audience.. The entries will be reviewed by the curator before publication.. Search this site.. Search.. Our current sponsor.. SfAM is the voice of applied microbiology and oldest microbiology society in the UK.. Its object is to advance for the benefit of the public the science of microbiology in.. Read More.. The Foundation for Bacteriology.. provides financial support to research  ...   next exhibit.. Take the guided tour.. Special Features.. Each.. special feature file.. treats a specific aspect of bacteria that may be outside the mainstream of most bacteriologists.. In these files the author has included links that are only loosely related to bacteria per se, but that nevertheless may be of interest to the reader.. To the Special Features.. Looking for something in particular?.. In case you are looking for information on a particular bacterial species or name, it is best to check out our Bacterial Species Files.. These pages do not tell a story, but present a list of ordered, relevant links.. Otherwise, use the search option to search for keywords.. To the Species Files.. Enjoy your visit!.. Book recommendation.. Bacteria: The Benign, the Bad, and the Beautiful.. Dr.. Trudy Wassenaar.. Publisher's info.. Latest News.. The Virtual Museum of Bacteria is now available on smartphone, tablet, iPhone and iPad.. Enjoy!.. Article last modified.. Listeria monocytogenes.. T.. Wassenaar.. View the organism:.. Listeria monocytogenes under the microscope.. (courtesy D.. Kunkel).. Collection sites, home-.. READ MORE.. Most popular article.. This site brings together many links on bacteria, bacteriology, and related topics available on the web.. It.. © 1998-2013 Contents: Trudy Wassenaar.. www.. mmgc.. eu.. Design: Atelier Farkas.. farkas.. de..

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  • Title: Home
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  • Title: Main Exhibits
    Descriptive info: You are here:.. Select submenu.. Main Exhibits.. It also provides crystal-clear information about many aspects of bacteria.. If you're unfamiliar with the subject, here's a start:.. Bacteria are living things that are neither plants nor animals, but belong to a group all by themselves.. They are very small-individually not more than one single cellhowever there are normally millions of them together, for they can multiply really fast.. We provide many links to pictures, video's, and explanatory text.. By browsing through our links you are presented with a synopsis of the diverse world of bacteria, you can learn that not all bacteria are harmful,  ...   three main menues at the top the Main exhibits, to find general information on bacteria, the Bacterial species files, to find lists of links about specific bacteria, or the Special feature files, for some fun reading.. BREAKING NEWS: Trudy Wassenaar, the curator of this museum, has published a book about - what else? - bacteria, describing them in all their microscopic grandeur.. Bacteria, the Benign, the Bad and the Beautiful.. Order here.. This site was produced with financial support from the.. Foundation for Bacteriology (Prof.. Blaser, president).. Waksman Foundation for Microbiology.. In case you are interested to sponsor this site, please.. contact us.. Next..

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  • Title: About Bacteria
    Descriptive info: About bacteria: Overview.. Details.. Written by Dr.. Bacteria.. are everywhere, but their small size makes them invisible.. Maybe you don't even have a clear idea what bacteria are.. If you want to learn more about bacteria, this category is the best place to start.. There are 6 exhibits in this category that are best read in the following order:.. What are bacteria.. ? That is explained here, and the links on this page provide further introductions in the subject.. This exhibit is the best place to start.. The links are all relatively easy to understand.. Not all microorganisms are  ...   museum.. What is bacteriology.. ? The study of bacteria is explained here.. Some of the many aspects that can be covered in bacteriology are touched upon.. In.. it is described how bacteria are applied in industry.. There are more explorations than you might have thought about.. are viruses that prey on bacteria.. So bacteria can be ill, too.. Ok, after reading through all of this, you will have a better idea of what bacteria are.. So here's the last file, which is a bit of fun:.. describes how we can see, taste, feel and hear bacteria.. Or not.. Prev..

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  • Title: What are bacteria?
    Descriptive info: What are bacteria?.. Last Updated on Wednesday, 05 June 2013 17:17.. are living things that are neither plants nor animals, but belong to a group all by themselves.. They are very small -- individually not more than one single cell -- and those cells are even smaller than our own body cells.. However there are normally millions of them together, for they can multiply really fast.. Bacteria are.. prokaryotes.. which means they are single cells that do not contain a nucleus.. It may seem weird to classify organisms according to such details, but having or not having a nucleus is not trivial at all.. The division between prokaryotes and eukaryotes (the latter are all organisms with a nucleus inside their cells) is of extreme importance in biology.. Having a nucleus in your cells is the result of a major evolutionary breakthrough.. Visit our other exhibits if you want to know more about bacteria and.. evolution.. , or in what.. extreme environments.. bacteria can be found.. Microbiology.. is the study of prokaryotes, eukaryotes (as long as the organism is microscopically small) and viruses.. What is the difference between bacteria and viruses?.. Bacteria can be bad or good - it all depends on their kind.. Did you know that.. bacteria can be ill too.. ? In our museum Bacteria are in the center of the picture, but there also are many other micro-organisms that can be useful to mankind or cause infectious diseases.. Here's explained what.. other micro-orgnisms.. exist that are not included in our museum.. The exhibit.. bacteria and our senses.. explains how we can be aware of bacteria.. And where are the pictures of bacteria?  ...   Fortunately.. our immunesystem.. is well equipped to deal with most pathogenic bacteria we encounter on a daily basis.. An infection is the exception, not the rule, although we meet pathogenic bacteria every day.. However, not all bacteria are 'bad guys'.. We need bacteria to stay alive, as is explained in our exhibit.. commensals.. See bacteria multiply.. in just a few hours in a 520 k time lapse movie.. A simple and clear description about.. is given by a then 13-year-old author.. Here's a good way to start if you want to learn more about bacteria.. Although at first glance the page looks unfinished,.. bacteria are clearly explained here.. Here's what the specialist says:.. Enter "Microbe World".. Have fun browsing through that one!.. OK, one more: a.. Description of bacteria with some jargon explained.. (By now you may have discovered that the source of each external link is shown when you move your mouse over a link; if no source is given it means the link leads to another exhibit within our museum).. A brief synopsis of the diverse world of bacteria, where you can learn that not all bacteria are harmful, is found in this.. Nature Bulletins display.. Another very informative site to visit is the.. Bacteria exhibit.. of the Museum of Paleontology, where you can also find a drawing and explanation of.. the inside of a typical bacteria.. More details on bacterial structures are further explained in.. The New Microbial World.. , an introductory textbook for students of which the first 3 chapters are online.. If you're curious what real bacteria look like, don't forget to check out our Special Feature File:.. Images of bacteria..

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  • Title: Other Microorganisms
    Descriptive info: Which organisms are not included in our museum?.. Last Updated on Wednesday, 05 June 2013 17:18.. This museum deals exclusively with bacteria.. Bacteria are single cell organisms that do not have a nucleus (see:.. what are bacteria.. ).. Other examples of single-cell organisms are fungi or amoebas.. They are not bacteria: they belong to the eukaryotes because they have their genetic material stored away in a nucleus.. That is one of several fundamental differences between prokaryotes (to which bacteria belong) and eukaryotes.. An example of a single-cellular fungus is.. yeast.. , used for making bread and wine.. See this comparison of yeast cells and bacterial cells.. ; note that yeast cells are bigger than bacterial cells.. Bacteria can cause infectious diseases, see our exhibit on '.. pathogenic bacteria.. '.. Infections cannot only be caused by bacteria, but also by viruses and eukaryotic micro-organisms.. Viruses.. are much smaller than bacteria, and they cannot live by themselves.. They sneak into other cells and  ...   and include a spectrum of less or more severe diseases like the common cold, influenza, measles, and AIDS.. Some viruses can even cause certain forms of cancer.. Antibiotics are not effective against viruses (see.. antibiotics.. to find out more about these drugs) but.. our immune system.. knows how to deal with most of them.. The study of viruses is an important part of microbiology but it is a specialization like bacteriology is.. Here is an excellent link on.. all the virology on the www.. (from our virology colleagues at virology.. net).. In our museum we deal with bacteria exclusively.. However, even bacteria can suffer a viral infection: read more about how.. bacteria can be ill.. Infectious diseases can also be caused by.. parasites.. , which can be single cell organisms, as in the case of malaria or giardia, or little animals like parasitic worms.. All these nasty creatures are not bacteria, and for that reason they are not part of our display..

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  • Title: Bacteriology
    Descriptive info: Bacteriology: the study of bacteria.. Last Updated on Wednesday, 05 June 2013 17:20.. It comprises the identification, classification and characterization of bacterial species.. Bacteria are identified by their properties, for example their looks, what nutrients they can grow on or what food they cannot digest, what temperature they require for growth, what substances they produce, etc.. To study.. morphology.. , that is the shape of bacteria, a microscope is used.. Go to our Special Feature File on.. to learn all about the different shapes of bacteria, both under the microscope and visible by the naked eye.. The.. Gram-stain.. is one of the commonly used staining techniques used to visualize bacteria.. It has nothing to do with the unit of mass, the gram, but was invented by a person named Hans Christian Gram.. If you're not sure what bacteria are, check our exhibit on.. bacteria.. first.. In order to study their properties, scientists grow bacteria in a laboratory under carefully controled conditions, using a number of well defined growth media.. The work is done under otherwise sterile conditions.. Without such precautions unwanted  ...   of modern bacteriology.. Bacteriology is studied in a laboratory.. But it is possible to do a few do-it-yourself experiments without much requirements.. Have fun.. isolating bacteria from Limburger cheese.. Here you can find.. more suggestions for experiments.. , or use our.. list of educational resources.. to convince your teacher to include these experiments in classes.. Have fun!.. Bacteriology is a subdivision of microbiology.. Other micro-organisms studied in microbiology are yeast, molds, and viruses.. Our museum deals exclusively with bacteria.. Check which micro-organisms are not included.. is a branche of bacteriology with interest in industrial use of bacteria.. This subject is so diverse that it is covered in a different exhibit:.. applied bacteriology.. There are a number of courses on microbiology and bacteriology available on the Web:.. bacterial world in a drop of water.. Our.. advanced bacteriology exhibit.. contains more links to on-line courses and tutorials at an advanced level.. The classification of bacteria in families, sub-families and superfamilies is called bacterial systematics, or.. taxonomy.. Bacterial systematics.. is nicely explained at this site.. Taxonomy and phylogeny.. are explained in more detail here..

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  • Title: Applied bacteriology
    Descriptive info: Applied bacteriology: Use of bacteria in industry.. Last Updated on Wednesday, 05 June 2013 17:32.. Bacteria have many properties that are useful to industry.. The diversity of the Bacterial kingdom is reflected by the diverse applications of bacteria as a cheap labor force.. Let's start with something spectacular:.. Bacteria can be used to mine gold.. ! well, not quite, but the discovery that.. Thiobacillus ferrooxidans.. can concentrate gold trapped in rock minerals drew the attention of mining companies, and they are now developing a method of applying these bacteria in the gold mining industry.. Biomining.. may be the way of mining in the future, and researchers are now trying to modify the bacteria so that they collect the ores of interest.. Certain bacteria are used to clean our waste: be it pollution, compost heaps, or sewage: bacteria can get rid of things.. The subject may not appeal to you, but there are.. microbes that clean sewage.. - and generate electricity at the same time! Or let them.. clean up metal waste.. , and serve as catalysts later on, to assist in chemical processes.. Bacteria have a taste for mining wastewaters.. no matter how toxic the contaminants are for animals and humans.. Specialized bacteria metabolize these toxic chemicals into non-toxic, or less toxic compounds.. Here are more examples of how diverse our use of bacteria is:.. Bacteria can degrade  ...   and even PCB's.. Most of these are toxic to humans and higher organisms; fortunately they can be degraded into safe compounds by bacteria.. When human activity employs bacteria this way it is called.. bioremediation.. More about biomediation:.. using bacteria to clean up hazardous waste.. An even more spectacular property is that some bacterial species might be used for.. cleaning up our nuclear waste.. The radioactivity cannot be destroyed or inactivated by the bacteria, but they can 'eat' all chemical toxic solvents in which these radioactive wastes are often present, and thus slow down or prevent corrosion.. Did you know?.. Bacteria can make plastic!.. And yet other.. bacteria can eat plastic.. , a discovery made by a 16-year young scientist.. Imagine what happens if these different species would live together: one kind would produce the food for the other.. Although it is not so in this particular case, such.. bacterial communities that 'care' for each other.. are actually quite common.. Some bacteria are currently investigated for their power to manipulate mosquito's - and in that way we could.. fight malaria with bacteria.. In fact, the ways how bacteria can be applied are nearly as diverse as their life styles.. But even those bacteria for which we haven't found an application, have a role to play in their own environment.. Bacteria are essential components of the biospere of our planet..

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  • Title: Bacteriophages
    Descriptive info: Bacteriophages make bacteria ill.. Last Updated on Wednesday, 05 June 2013 17:23.. Elsewhere in this museum it is described how infectious diseases can be caused by.. viruses.. These minute creatures live parasitic in other cells.. Some have viruses have adapted to live in bacterial cells.. They are called bacteriophages.. , viruses that live in bacteria, can have different shapes, and some even resemble little space-shuttles.. Have a look at bacteriophages.. The 'life cycle' of a bacteriophage is drawn in a.. schematic overview.. Bacteriophages are able to attach themselves to (certain types of) bacteria and to inject their genetic material in the bacterial cell.. After this happens, their existence becomes more difficult to describe, for only their genetic material (in the form of DNA) exists in the bacterial cell.. Then, using the bacterial machinery, the DNA multiplies itself.. This viral DNA forces the bacterial cell to produce all other components that assemble to produce new virus particles.. Eventually so many new bacteriophages are formed that the cell bursts.. The offspring of the bacteriophage has destroyed its bacterial host, and in so doing millions of new bacteriophages are released.. These can attach themselves to new bacteria to complete their life cycle.. How do we notice that bacteriophages are present in bacteria? We can see bacteria when they grow, eg.. a liquid will become cloudy if there are enough bacteria present (check how.. our  ...   been destroyed by a viral attack.. A liquid that is cloudy from bacteria will become clear again when bacteriophages destroy all cells present.. However, bacteriophages do not always kill their host, at least not immediately.. Like all infectious organisms, bacteriophages could never make their host extinct, for they are dependent on their host bacteria to survive.. This is also true for infectious diseases: they cannot make their target host extinct.. See our display on.. infectious bacterial diseases.. When bacteriophages kill bacteria, can they be used to cure us from pathogenic bacteria? Indeed, phage therapy has been used in the past to cure infectious diseases, especially in Eastern Europe and Russia, and research is continuing.. Bacteriophages instead of antibiotic therapy.. A detailed description of.. bacteriophages can be found here.. Bacteriophages are important tools in bacteriological research.. They can be used as vehicles to introduce DNA into bacteria.. Phages don't mind to take along foreign DNA when they insert their own DNA into a bacterial cells and microbiologists make use of this.. However, they make sure to keep the phages under control otherwise all their precious bacterial cultures become infected!.. In Nature, bacteriophages sometimes incorporate a bit of DNA from the bacteria they prey on, and transport it into their next hosting cell.. That way, bacteriophages can contribute to the.. evolution of bacteria.. , which is treated in more detail in another exhibit..

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  • Title: Bacteria and our senses
    Descriptive info: Bacteria and our senses.. Last Updated on Wednesday, 05 June 2013 17:25.. See them.. Bacteria are too small to see with the naked eye.. With the development of the microscope, which is nothing but a set of strong optical lenses,.. Antony van Leeuwenhoek.. made it possible for the first time to "see the unseen".. Photo gallery of bacterial pathogens.. If you can't get enough of this, check out our special feature file:.. How a microscope works.. Electron microscopes.. give an even bigger magnification.. But.. how can one measure things.. using a microscope?.. How many bacteria are living in total on earth.. do you reckon? Check it out!.. Who said bacteria couldn't be seen with the naked eye? Some species are so big that we can indeed see their single cells.. An example is.. Thiomargarita namibiensis.. And even the usually sized bacteria are not invisible: there just need to be enough of them.. The water in a vase of flowers becomes cloudy when it is not daily refreshed.. there you can see your bacteria!.. And minute as they are, they are with many.. View a 520 k time lapse movie of.. two E.. coli cells dividing into hundreds.. in just a few hours.. Note that they grow in a circular way.. When millions of bacteria grow from one single cell on a solid medium, the result will be a small round heap, which we call a colony.. To a bacteriologist, the.. shape of.. bacterial colonies.. is very informative..  ...   it.. Sometimes bacteria change the taste of our food for the better, as in cheese, yoghurt, or sourkraut.. Check out our exhibit on.. good bacteria in food.. And even the stale taste in your mouth when you wake up in the morning is mainly due to bacterial activity.. Smell them.. Bacteria have a smell of their own.. , or, more correctly, their metabolic products have.. A bacteriologist will smell the plate on which his bacteria grew to check, just as he looks at the colonies to inspect their form.. And don't you check the smell of milk to make sure it has not gone sour? The smell of pond water of questionable quality which smells like rotten eggs is also produced by bacteria.. The smell of earth in a forest, or the smell of a wet dog - you are exposed to the smells of various bacteria more often than you would think.. Feel them.. Can you feel bacteria? Difficult, but when they are infecting your body, the pain they cause can be quite noticeable! However, it is often your bodies defense that causes the pain.. For instance, during an ear infection, fluid is accumulating in the middle ear, and this causes pressure on the sensitive drum.. So it may not be the bacteria themselves you are aware of, but the pain is nothing less serious!.. But can we.. hear them.. ?.. If you can think of an example, the curator of this museum would be all ear!..

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  • Title: Pathogenic Bacteria
    Descriptive info: Pathogenic Bacteria: Overview.. Some bacteria can cause diseases.. These are called.. Although some people think all bacteria are bad for you, this is nonsense.. Most bacteria don't have anything to do with us, some are good for you and it would make you sick if they left you.. But for some bacteria it would be better if you kept your distance.. Having said so, our body encounters bacteria that can make us ill all the time, and yet we do not suffer bacterial infections for most of our time.. That is because not every encounter results in disease, something to remember next time you read scary stories about Salmonella and the like being detected on door handles or shopping carts.. Whether an encounter results in disease depends on a number of factors,  ...   cateogory gives a good introduction.. It only contains three exibits:.. What are pathogens exactly?.. is explained here.. It is always good to know your enemy.. How bacteria cause disease.. is described in the exhibit Pathogenicity.. The result of a spreading disease can be an epidemic, as is explained in our display on.. epidemiology.. Once you have read these exhibits, you will realize how important it is to stay clear of certain pathogenic bacteria.. In our category.. Food and water safety.. it is explained what you can do to decrease your risk of a bacterial infection.. Don't forget to also read about the good bacteria in food.. But you are not helpless against pathogenic bacteria.. Your body is well equipped to fight back, and that is explained in the category.. How we fight bacteria..

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  • Archived pages: 245